Arab League

League of Arab States

جامعة الدول العربية
Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya
Flag
Administrative center Cairo
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Arab
Membership
Leaders
 -  Arab League Secretariat Nabil el-Araby
 -  Arab Parliament Ali Al-Daqbaashi
 -  Council Presidency  Lebanon
Legislature Arab Parliament
Establishment
 -  Alexandria Protocol 22 March 1945 
Area
 -  Total area 13,333,296 km2 
5,148,048 sq mi 
Population
 -  2012 estimate 400,652,486 
 -  Density 24.33/km2 
63/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $4.766 trillion[1] 
 -  Per capita $11895 
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $3.526 trillion[citation needed] 
 -  Per capita $4,239[citation needed] 
Currency
Time zone (UTC+ 0 to + 4)
Website
www.lasportal.org
1. From 1979 to 1989: Tunis, Tunisia

The League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربيةJāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), commonly called the Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربيةal-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia (Middle East). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members, including Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011. The main goal of the league is to “draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries”.[2]

Through institutions such as the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures. In early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. This led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to: “promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade” between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

The Arab League has also played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states.[citation needed] Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues — particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

Contents

[edit] History

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims.USA, Princeton University Press, 1965.)

[edit] Geography

Administrative divisions in the Arab League

The area of members of the Arab League covers around 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa, and Asia. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains, and the Fertile Crescent which stretches from Iraq over Syria, and Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia, as well as parts of the world’s longest river, the Nile.

The area witnessed the rise of many ancient civilizations: Nabateans, among others.

[edit] Member States

Joining dates of member States; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
     1940s      1950s      1960s      1970s

The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan (Jordan from 1946), and Yemen. There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab States being admitted, with a current total of 21 member States due to Syria’s suspension following the 2011 uprising.

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the [11]

The Arab Parliament recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring.[12] A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.[13] A wave of criticism rose as the Arab League sent in December 2011 a commission “monitoring” Syria’s violence (massacres) on its own people who protested against its tyranny. The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of infamous Omar al-Bashir’s military intelligence, while heinous war crimes including genocide were committed on his watch.[14][15][16] Syria remains suspended.

[edit] Political policy and administration

Headquarters of the Arab League in Cairo

The Charter of the Arab League[19]

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of [2]

Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. […] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine’s special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Today, Palestine is a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.

At the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab League since the election of Hamas in 2007.

[edit] Summits

  1. Cairo: 13–17 January 1964.
  2. Alexandria: 5–11 September 1964.
  3. Casablanca: 13–17 September 1965.
  4. Khartoum: 29 August 1967.
  5. Rabat: 21–23 December 1969.
  6. Cairo (first emergency summit): 21–27 September 1970.
  7. Algiers: 26–28 November.1973.
  8. Rabat: 29 October 1974.
  9. Riyadh (2nd emergency summit): 17–28 October 1976.
  10. Cairo: 25–26 October 1976.
  11. Baghdad: 2–5 November.1978.
  12. Tunis: 20–22 November 1979.
  13. Amman: 21–22 November 1980.
  14. Fes: 6–9 September 1982.
  15. Casablanca (3rd emergency summit): 7–9 September 1985.
  16. Amman (4th emergency summit): 8–12 November 1987.
  17. Algiers (5th emergency summit): 7–9 June 1988.
  18. Casablanca (6th emergency summit): 23–26 June 1989.
  19. Baghdad (7th emergency summit): 28–30 March 1990.
  20. Egypt Cairo (8th emergency summit): 9–10 August 1990.
  21. Egypt Cairo (9th emergency summit): 22–23 June 1996.
  22. Egypt Cairo (10th emergency summit): 21–22 October 2000.
  23. Amman: 27–28 March 2001.
  24. Beirut: 27–28 March 2002.
  25. Sharm el-Sheikh: 1 March 2003.
  26. Tunis: 22–23 May 2004.
  27. Algiers: 22–23 March 2005.
  28. Khartoum: 28–30 March 2006.
  29. Riyadh: 27–28 March 2007.
  30. Damascus: 29–30 March 2008.
  31. Doha: 28–30 March 2009.
  32. Sirte: 27–28 March 2010.
  33. Baghdad: 27–29 March 2012.
  34. Doha: March 2013.
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946.
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958.
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: the 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982.

[edit] Economic resources

The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states; it also has great fertile lands in southern Sudan, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom, and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[23] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Algeria, and poor countries like the Comoros, Mauritania, and Djibouti. The Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur with US$500 million.

[edit] Literacy in Arab league countries

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. Human Development Report 2010.

Rank Country Literacy rate
1  Kuwait 98.6[24]
2  Lebanon 94.5[25]
3  Palestinian Authority 94.1[24]
4  Qatar 93.1[26]
5  Jordan 92.2[25]
6  Bahrain 90.8[26]
7  United Arab Emirates 90.0[26]
8  Libya 88.4[25]
9  Oman 86.7[24]
10  Saudi Arabia 85.5[25]
11  Syria 83.6[27]
12  Tunisia 78[25]
13  Iraq 77.6[24]
14  Comoros 73.6[27]
15  Algeria 72.6[25]
16  Morocco 70[27]
17  Sudan 69.3[24]
18  Djibouti 67.9[28]
19  Egypt 66.4[27]
20  Yemen 60.9[27]
21  Mauritania 56.8[27]
22  Somalia 54.8[27]

[edit] Demographics of Arab League countries

The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, although the overwhelming majority of the League’s population identifies as Arab (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of 1 January 2007, about 340,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 81 million.[29] The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 91,450,563 91 236 [30]
2  Algeria 37,100,000 16 41 [31]
3  Morocco 32,064,173 75 194 [32]
4  Sudan 30,894,000 16 41 [33]
5  Iraq 30,747,000 70 181 [31]
6  Saudi Arabia 28,146,658 12 31 [31]
7  Yemen 23,580,000 45 117 [31]
8  Syria 21,906,000 118 306 [31]
9  Tunisia 10,673,800 65 168 [34]
10  Somalia 9,133,000 14 36 [31]
11  United Arab Emirates 8,264,070 99 256 [35]
12  Libya 6,733,620 3.8 9.8 [36]
13  Jordan 6,316,000 71 184 [31]
14  Lebanon 4,224,000 404 1,046 [31]
15  Palestinian Authority 4,136,540 687 1,779 [37]
16  Kuwait 3,566,437 200 518 [31]
17  Mauritania 3,291,000 3.2 8.3 [31]
18  Oman 2,845,000 9.2 24 [31]
19  Qatar 1,699,435 154 399 [31]
20  Bahrain 1,234,596 1,646 4,263 [38]
21  Djibouti 864,000 37 96 [31]
22  Comoros 691,000 309 800 [31]
Total  Arab League 400,652,486 26.6 68.1

The vast majority of the Arab League’s citizens are Muslim, with Christianity being the second largest religion. Over 20 million Christians live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, Sudan and Syria.

[edit] Jurisdiction

Rank Country Area (km2)[Note 1] Area (sq mi) % of Total Notes
1  Algeria 2,381,741 919,595 18.1% Largest country in Africa and in the Arab League.
2  Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 830,000 16.4% Largest country in the Middle East.
3  Sudan 1,886,068 728,215 14.2% Formerly the largest country in Africa.
4  Libya 1,759,540 679,360 11.4%
5  Mauritania 1,030,700 398,000 7.8%
6  Egypt 1,022,600 394,800 7.6% Excluding the Hala’ib Triangle (20,580 km2/7,950 sq mi).
7  Somalia 637,657 246,201 4.9%
8  Yemen 527,968 203,850 4.0%
9  Morocco 446,550 172,410 3.4% Does not include Western Sahara (266,000 km2/103,000 sq mi).
10  Iraq 435,244 168,049 3.3%
11  Oman 309,500 119,500 2.4%
12  Syria 185,180 71,500 1.4% Including the part of the Israel.
13  Tunisia 163,610 63,170 1.2%
14  Jordan 89,342 34,495 0.7%
15  United Arab Emirates 83,600 32,300 0.6%
16  Djibouti 23,200 9,000 0.1%
17  Kuwait 17,818 6,880 0.1%
18  Qatar 11,586 4,473 0.08%
19  Lebanon 10,452 4,036 0.08%
20  Palestine 6,020 2,320 0.05%
21  Comoros 2,235 863 0.01%
22  Bahrain 758 293 0.005%

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Source, unless otherwise specified: (pdf) Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density. United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2008/Table03.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
    Entries in this table giving figures other than the figures given in this source are bracketed by asterisks () in the Notes field, and the rationale for the figure used are explained in the associated Note.

[edit] References

  1. ^ MENAFN (28 December 2009). “Qatar, UAE, wealthiest Arab states”. http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story_s.asp?storyid=1093292067. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  2. ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/arableag.asp. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  3. ^ “The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO)”. http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=36214&URL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE&URL_SECTION=201.html.
  4. ^ Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization (ABC-CLIO: 2006), p. 525.
  5. ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/arab-league-formed
  6. ^ http://history.howstuffworks.com/asian-history/arab-league.htm
  7. ^ Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine. Oxford, U.K., Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London, Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Souhail Karam – Tom Heneghan – Michael Roddy (16 March 2011). “Gaddafi taunts critics, dares them to get him”. Reuters Africa. http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFLDE72E2RO20110316. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  10. ^ Kat Higgins (16 March 2011). “Libya: Clashes Continue As World Powers Stall”. Sky News. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/VIDEO-Libyan-Army-Pushes-Towards-Benghazi-As-World-Powers-Debate-No-Fly-Zone-Against-Gaddafi/Article/201103315953124?lpos=World_News_First_World_News_Article_Teaser_Region_3&lid=ARTICLE_15953124_VIDEO%3A_Libyan_Army_Pushes_Towards_Benghazi_As_World_Powers_Debate_No_Fly_Zone_Against_Gaddafi. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  11. ^ “Arab League Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council”. RTT News. 25 August 2011. http://www.rttnews.com/Content/GeneralNews.aspx?Id=1700187&SM=1. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  12. ^ “Arab League parliament urges Syria suspension”. Al Jazeera English. 20 September 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/09/201192017594330402.html. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  13. ^ “Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria Over Crackdown”. New York Times. 12 November 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/13/world/middleeast/arab-league-votes-to-suspend-syria-over-its-crackdown-on-protesters.html. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  14. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/12/27/the_worlds_worst_human_rights_observer
  15. ^ “Syrian activists slam Arab League mission head”, CNN, 28 December 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-12-28/middleeast/world_meast_syria-opposition-al-dabi_1_ali-kushayb-local-coordinating-committees-syrian-opposition?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST
  16. ^ “Violence in second Syrian city ahead of Arab League monitors’ visit”, the Guardian, 28 December 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/dec/28/syria-egypt
  17. ^ “Internal Regulations of the Council of the League of Arab States”. Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406061423/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/CouncilRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  18. ^ “Internal Regulations of the Committees of the League of Arab States”. Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406075743/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/CmteeRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  19. ^ “Internal Regulations of the Secretariat-General of the League”. Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406064006/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/SecGenRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  20. ^ Geddes, 1991, p. 208.
  21. ^ “The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002”. www.al-bab.com. 1 October 2005. http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/league/peace02.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  22. ^ “Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab league to Venezuela”. AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews. 15 January 2009. http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/news-13536–12-12–.html. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  23. ^ Reuters.com
  24. ^ p. 195
  25. ^ p. 193
  26. ^ p. 192
  27. ^ p. 194
  28. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dj.html
  29. ^ “Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics”. http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/tst12e?action=1&lname=.
  30. ^ http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/tst12e?action=1&lname=%201 Official Egyptian Population clock
  31. ^ http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  32. ^ http://www.hcp.ma Official Moroccan Population clock
  33. ^ http://www.cbs.gov.sd 2008 Sudanese census
  34. ^ http://www.ins.nat.tn/indexen.php National Statistics Institute of Tunisia
  35. ^ “المركز الوطني للإحصاء: المواطنون 947.9 ألفاً – جريدة الاتحاد”. Alittihad.ae. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. http://www.alittihad.ae/details.php?id=31500&y=2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  36. ^ CIA World Factbook. July 2012 population estimate for Libya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ly.html
  37. ^ PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES GAZA STRIP AND WEST BANK
  38. ^ http://www.census2010.gov.bh/results_en.php

[edit] External links



Source: Wikipedia

Leave a Reply