Kofi Annan

Kofi Annan ооь
Secretary-General of the United Nations
In office
1 January 1997 – 31 December 2006
Deputy Louise Fréchette
Mark Malloch Brown
Preceded by Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Succeeded by Ban Ki-moon
United Nations and Arab League Envoy to Syria
In office
23 February 2012 – 31 August 2012
Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (UN)
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Lakhdar Brahimi
Personal details
Born (1938-04-08) 8 April 1938 (age 74)
Gold Coast
(now Ghana)
Spouse(s) Titi Alakija (1965–late 1970s)
Nane Lagergren (1984–present)
Relations Anthony Gildas Kofi Annan
Children Kojo
Alma mater Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
Macalester College
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Religion Protestantism[1]

Kofi Atta Annan (play Global AIDS and Health Fund to support developing countries in their struggle to care for their people.

From 23 February until 31 August 2012, Annan was the UN –[3] stating that “when the Syrian people desperately need action, there continues to be finger-pointing and name-calling in the Security Council.”


[edit] Early years and education

Kofi Annan was born in Kumasi, Ghana on 8 April 1938. His twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shares the middle name Atta, which in Fante and Akan means ‘twin’. Annan and his sister were born into one of the country’s aristocratic families; both their grandfathers and their uncle were tribal chiefs.[4]

In the Akan names tradition, some children are named according to the day of the week on which they were born, and/or in relation to how many children precede them. Kofi in Akan is the name that corresponds with Friday.[5]

Pronunciation: Annan has said his surname rhymes with “cannon” in English.[6]

From 1954 to 1957, Annan attended the elite Mfantsipim school, a Methodist boarding school in Cape Coast founded in the 1870s. Annan has said that the school taught him “that suffering anywhere concerns people everywhere”.[7] In 1957, the year Annan graduated from Mfantsipim, Ghana gained independence from Britain.

In 1958, Annan began studying economics at the Kumasi College of Science and Technology, now the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana. He received a Ford Foundation grant, enabling him to complete his undergraduate studies at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, United States, in 1961. Annan then did a DEA degree in International Relations at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, from 1961–62. After some years of work experience, he studied at the MIT Sloan School of Management[8] (1971–72) in the Sloan Fellows program and earned a Master of Science (M.S.) degree.

Annan is fluent in English, French, Akan, some Kru languages and other African languages.[9]

[edit] Early career

In 1962, Kofi Annan started working as a Budget Officer for the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations (UN). From 1974 to 1976, he worked as the Director of Tourism in Ghana. In the late 1980s, Annan returned to work for the UN, where he was appointed as an Assistant Secretary-General in three consecutive positions: Human Resources, Management and Security Coordinator (1987–1990); Program Planning, Budget and Finance, and Controller (1990–1992); and Peacekeeping Operations (March 1993 – December 1996).

The Rwandan Genocide took place in 1994 while Annan directed UN Peacekeeping Operations. In 2003 Canadian ex-General Roméo Dallaire, who was force commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, claimed that Annan was overly passive in his response to the imminent genocide. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003), General Dallaire asserted that Annan held back UN troops from intervening to settle the conflict, and from providing more logistical and material support. Dallaire claimed that Annan failed to provide responses to his repeated faxes asking for access to a weapons depository; such weapons could have helped Dallaire defend the endangered Tutsis. In 2004, ten years after the genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were killed, Annan said, “I could and should have done more to sound the alarm and rally support.”[10]

Annan served as Under-Secretary-General from March 1994 to October 1995. He was appointed a Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the former Yugoslavia, serving for five months before returning to his duties as Under-Secretary-General in April 1996.

[edit] Secretary-General of the United Nations

[edit] Appointment

On 13 December 1996, the United Nations Security Council recommended Annan to replace the previous Secretary-General, Dr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt, whose second term faced the veto of the United States.[11][12] Confirmed four days later by the vote of the General Assembly,[13] he started his first term as Secretary-General on 1 January 1997.

[edit] Activities

Annan with the United Nations Headquarters in New York City on 16 November 2001.

In April 2001, Annan issued a five-point “Call to Action” to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Stating it was a “personal priority”, Annan proposed a Global AIDS and Health Fund to stimulate the increased international spending needed to help developing countries confront the HIV/AIDS crisis. On 10 December 2001, Annan and the United Nations were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”.[14]

During the build-up to the [16]

Annan and Iranian President [17]

Annan supported sending a women’s rights and other topics.

Beginning in 1998, Annan convened an annual UN “Security Council Retreat” with the 15 States’ representatives of the Council. It was held at the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) Conference Center at the Rockefeller family estate at Pocantico, and was sponsored by both the RBF and the UN.[18]

[edit] Lubbers sexual-harassment investigation

In June 2004, Annan was given a copy of the [20] His decision held until November 2004. When the OIOS issued its annual report to the UN General Assembly, it stated that it had found Lubbers guilty of sexual harassment. These events were widely reported and weakened Annan’s influence.

On 17 November 2004, Annan accepted an OIOS report clearing Dileep Nair, UN Under-Secretary-General for Internal Oversight Services, of political corruption and sexual harassment charges. Some UN staff in New York disagreed with this conclusion, leading to extended debate on 19 November.

The internal UNn-OIOS report on Lubbers was leaked, and sections accompanied by an article by Kate Holt were published in a British newspaper. In February 2005, he resigned as head of the UN refugee agency. Lubbers said he wanted to relieve political pressure on Annan.[21]

[edit] Oil-for-Food scandal

In December 2004, reports surfaced that the Secretary-General’s son Kojo Annan received payments from the Oil-for-Food Program. Kofi Annan called for an investigation to look into the allegations.

Annan appointed the Independent Inquiry Committee,[23]

[edit] Relations between the United States and the United Nations

Kofi Annan supported[25] his deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch Brown, who openly criticized the United States in a speech on 6 June 2006: “[T]he prevailing practice of seeking to use the UN almost by stealth as a diplomatic tool while failing to stand up for it against its domestic critics is simply not sustainable. You will lose the UN one way or another. […] [That] the US is constructively engaged with the UN […] is not well known or understood, in part because much of the public discourse that reaches the US heartland has been largely abandoned to its loudest detractors such as Rush Limbaugh and Fox News.”[26] Malloch later said his talk was a “sincere and constructive critique of U.S. policy toward the U.N. by a friend and admirer.”[27]

The talk was unusual because it violated unofficial policy of not having top officials publicly criticize member nations.[28]

[edit] UN Resolution 61/225: World Diabetes Day

Kofi Annan witnessed the United Nations General Assembly’s passage of UN Resolution 61/225, to establish Bangladesh, the Resolution was passed on 20 December 2006. many

[edit] Farewell addresses

On 19 September 2006, Annan gave a farewell address to world leaders gathered at the UN headquarters in New York, in anticipation of his retirement on 31 December. In the speech he outlined three major problems of “an unjust world economy, world disorder, and widespread contempt for human rights and the rule of law”, which he believes “have not resolved, but sharpened” during his time as Secretary-General. He also pointed to violence in Africa, and the Arab-Israeli conflict as two major issues warranting attention.[29]

On 11 December 2006, in his final speech as Secretary-General, delivered at the [31]

[edit] Recommendations for UN reform

Soon after taking office in 1997, Annan released two reports on management reform. On 17 March 1997, the report ‘Management and Organisational Measures’ (A/51/829) introduced new management mechanisms through the establishment of a cabinet-style body to assist him and be grouping the UN’s activities in accordance with four core missions. A comprehensive reform agenda was issued on 14 July 1997 entitled ‘Renewing the United Nations: A Programme for Reform’ (A/51/950). Key proposals included the introduction of strategic management to strengthen unity of purpose, the establishment of the position of Deputy Secretary-General, a 10-percent reduction in posts, a reduction in administrative costs, the consolidation of the UN at the country level, and reaching out to civil society and the private sector as partners. Annan also proposed to hold a Millennium Summit in 2000.[33]

On 31 January 2006, Kofi Annan outlined his vision for a comprehensive and extensive reform of the UN in a policy speech to the United Nations Association UK. The speech, delivered at Central Hall, Westminster, also marked the 60th Anniversary of the first meetings of the UN General Assembly and UN Security Council.[34]

On 7 March 2006, he presented to the General Assembly his proposals for a fundamental overhaul of the United Nations Secretariat. The reform report is entitled: “Investing in the United Nations, For a Stronger Organization Worldwide“.[35]

On 30 March 2006, he presented to the General Assembly his analysis and recommendations for updating the entire work programme of the United Nations Secretariat over the last 60 years. The report is entitled: “Mandating and Delivering: Analysis and Recommendations to Facilitate the Review of Mandates”.[36]

[edit] Post-UN career

Upon his return to Ghana, Annan was immediately suggested as a candidate to become the country’s next President.[37]

He has become involved with several organizations with both global and African focuses. In 2007, Annan was named chairman of the prize committee for the MacArthur Foundation Award for International Justice.

In the beginning of 2008, as head of the Panel of Eminent African Personalities, Annan participated in the negotiations to end the Raila Odinga sign a coalition government agreement and was widely lauded by many Kenyans for this landmark achievement. That was the best deal achieved then under the mediation efforts.

Annan is a member of the [41]

Annan is a member of the Africa Progress Panel (APP), an independent authority on Africa launched in April 2007 to focus world leaders’ attention on delivering their commitments to the continent. The Panel launched a major report in London on Monday 16 June 2008 entitled Africa’s Development: Promises and Prospects.[42]

Kofi Annan was appointed the Chancellor of the University of Ghana in 2008.[43]

Annan has signed up to be one of the Counsellors at One Young World a non-profit organisation which hopes to bring together 1500 young global leaders of tomorrow from every country in the world.

In May 2009 John Coatsworth at the School of International and Public Affairs as one of the first group of Global Fellows. The Global Fellows program will bring students together with global practitioners to share firsthand knowledge of experiences in the life of an international or public figure. He is also a fellow of The Committee on Global Thought appointed by the University.

On 2 September 2009, Annan was unveiled as the first Li Ka Shing Professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy of the National University of Singapore (NUS). The announcement was made during the school’s 5th anniversary celebrations.[44]

On 7 October 2010, Annan was appointed to the Board of Directors of the His Highness the Aga Khan in partnership with the Government of Canada. The Center is located at 330 Sussex Drive in Ottawa, Canada. Dedicated to the creation of successful societies, the Center is founded on the premise that tolerance, openness and understanding towards the cultures, social structures, values and faiths of other peoples are essential to the very survival of an interdependent world. Pluralism is no longer simply an asset or a prerequisite for progress and development.

A member of the [46] dedicated to sustainable development and peace.

[edit] Work in Syria

On 23 February 2012, Annan was appointed as the UN-Arab League envoy to [48]

  1. commit to work with the Envoy in an inclusive Syrian-led political process to address the legitimate aspirations and concerns of the Syrian people, and, to this end, commit to appoint an empowered interlocutor when invited to do so by the Envoy;
  2. commit to stop the fighting and achieve urgently an effective United Nations supervised cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties to protect civilians and stabilise the country.
    To this end, the Syrian government should immediately cease troop movements towards, and end the use of heavy weapons in, population centres, and begin pullback of military concentrations in and around population centres.
    As these actions are being taken on the ground, the Syrian government should work with the Envoy to bring about a sustained cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties with an effective United Nations supervision mechanism.
    Similar commitments would be sought by the Envoy from the opposition and all relevant elements to stop the fighting and work with him to bring about a sustained cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties with an effective United Nations supervision mechanism;
  3. ensure timely provision of humanitarian assistance to all areas affected by the fighting, and to this end, as immediate steps, to accept and implement a daily two hour humanitarian pause and to coordinate exact time and modalities of the daily pause through an efficient mechanism, including at local level;
  4. intensify the pace and scale of release of arbitrarily detained persons, including especially vulnerable categories of persons, and persons involved in peaceful political activities, provide without delay through appropriate channels a list of all places in which such persons are being detained, immediately begin organizing access to such locations and through appropriate channels respond promptly to all written requests for information, access or release regarding such persons;
  5. ensure freedom of movement throughout the country for journalists and a non-discriminatory visa policy for them;
  6. respect freedom of association and the right to demonstrate peacefully as legally guaranteed.

On 2 August, he resigned as U.N. and Arab League joint special envoy to Syria,[51]

[edit] Memoir

On 4 September 2012, Annan published his memoir, Interventions: A Life in War and Peace, written with statecraft.

[edit] Personal life

In 1965 Kofi Annan married Titi Alakija, a Nigerian woman from a well-to-do family. Several years later they had a daughter Ama and later a son Kojo. The couple separated in the late seventies. In 1984 Annan remarried to Nane Lagergren – a Swedish lawyer at the U.N. and niece of Raoul Wallenberg.[52]

[edit] Honours and awards

[edit] Honours

2000: Companion of the Order of the Star of Ghana[53]
2001: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
2005: Grand Collar of the Portugal)
2006: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
2007: Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria
2007: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) from Queen Elizabeth II (UK)[54]
2008: Grand Cross 1st class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany[55]

[edit] Awards

Kofi Annan at the award ceremony – organized by the ISC – receiving the Freedom Prize of the Max Schmidheiny Foundation at the University of St. Gallen

2000: Kora All Africa Music Awards in the category of Lifetime Achievement
2001: Nobel Peace Prize, jointly presented to Kofi Annan and the United Nations
2002: winner of the “JFK Memorial Museum
2002: The American Whig-Cliosophic Society James Madison Award for Distinguished Public Service.[56]
2003: Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences[57]
2003: Freedom Prize of the Max Schmidheiny Foundation at the University of St. Gallen
2006: International World Order of Culture, Science and Education, Award of the European Academy of Informatization, Belgium
2006: International Achievement Award for Annan’s lasting contributions to peace, security, and development
2006: Olof Palme Prize
2007: Wooden Crossbow, special award from the Swiss World Economic Forum
2007: People in Europe Award of Verlagsgruppe Passau
2007: MacArthur Foundation, MacArthur Award for International Justice
2007: Council of Europe
2008: Peace of Westphalia Prize
2008: Harvard University Honors Prize
2008: Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize
2008: Peace of Westphalia Prize – Münster (Westfalen)
2008: Open Society Award – CEU Business School Budapest
2011: Gothenburg Award

[edit] Honorary degrees

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_7_35/ai_53460476. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  2. ^ BBC News. 23 February 2012“Syria faces ultimatum from international conference.”
  3. ^ “Kofi Annan resigns as UN Syria envoy”. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/middle-east/Kofi-Annan-resigns-as-UN-Syria-envoy/articleshow/15329904.cms. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  4. ^ “Kofi Annan – The Man To Save The World?”, Saga Magazine, November 2002
  5. ^ Akan dictionary entry for Kofi dictionary.kasahorow.com
  6. ^ Crossette, Barbara (10 January 1997). “New U.N. Chief Promises Reforms but Says He Won’t Cut Jobs”. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0CE1D81638F933A25752C0A961958260. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  7. ^ Kofi Annan – Center of the Storm. Life Map. A Chief’s Son PBS
  8. ^ “The MIT 150: 150 Ideas, Inventions, and Innovators that Helped Shape Our World”. The Boston Globe. 15 May 2011. http://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/specials/mit150/mitlist/?page=full. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  9. ^ “Kofi Annan”, The Elders
  10. ^ “UN chief’s Rwanda genocide regret”. BBC News. 26 March 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3573229.stm. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  11. ^ “BIO/3051 – “Kofi Annan of Ghana recommended by Security Council for appointment as Secretary-General of United Nations”” (Press release). UN. 13 December 1996. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/1996/19961213.bio3051.html. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  12. http://books.google.com/books?id=chP1YnYFTKYC.
  13. ^ “GA/9208 -“General Assembly appoints Kofi Annan of Ghana as seventh Secretary-General”” (Press release). UN. 17 December 1996. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/1996/19961217.ga9208.html. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  14. ^ “The Nobel Peace Prize 2001”. Oslo: The Norwegian Nobel Committee. 12 October 2001. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/laureates/laureates-2001/press-2001/. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  15. ^ “Iraq war illegal, says Annan”. BBC News. 16 September 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3661134.stm. Retrieved 12 December 2006. “”When pressed on whether he viewed the invasion of Iraq as illegal, he said: ‘Yes, if you wish. I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN charter from our point of view, from the charter point of view, it was illegal.'””
  16. ^ “Excerpts: Annan interview”. BBC News. 16 September 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3661640.stm. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  17. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2006/09/03/annan-iran.html.
  18. ^ “Pocantico Conferences 2005”. Rockefeller Brothers Fund website. Archived from the original on 1 October 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061001030415/http://www.rbf.org/grants/programs/pocconference_2005_F.html. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  19. ^ “UN report slams Lubbers for ‘regular sexual harassment'”. Expatica. 18 February 2005. http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=1&story_id=17094&name=UN+report+slams+Lubbers+over+sexual+harassment. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  20. ^ Annan Clears Refugee Chief Of Harassment Accusations
  21. ^ “UN refugee chief quits over sex claims”, The Age, 21 February 2005
  22. ^ “About the Committee”. Independent Inquiry Committee into The United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme website. http://www.iic-offp.org/about.htm. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  23. ^ http://www.iic-offp.org/members.htm. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  24. ^ “Former U.N. Oil-for-Food Chief Benon Sevan Indicted Over Bribes From Saddam’s Regime”. Fox News. 16 January 2007. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,243909,00.html. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  25. ^ Annan Backs Deputy in Dispute With U.S.
  26. ^ Brown, Mark Malloch (6 June 2006). “UN needs US, US needs UN to face challenges – HIV/AIDS, SUDAN – that defy national solutions, says Deputy Secretary-General in New York address”. United Nations website. UN. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/dsgsm287.doc.htm. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  27. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,198535,00.html. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  28. ^ “Iraq Study Group’s Suggestion That U.S. Engage Iran And Syria In Talks About Iraq Leads To More Debate Than Resolve, In Washington And Iraq” – CNN NEWSROOM Transcripts (Aired 11 December 2006 – 09:00ET)
  29. ^ Leopold, Evelyn (16 September 2006). “UN’s Annan depicts polarized world in farewell speech”. Reuters. http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-09-19T173615Z_01_N19388437_RTRUKOC_0_US-UN-ASSEMBLY-ANNAN.xml&archived=False&src=091906_1412_ARTICLE_PROMO_also_on_reuters. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  30. ^ “Annan chides US in final speech”. BBC News. 11 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6169669.stm. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  31. ^ Annan, Kofi (11 December 2006). “Independence, Missouri, 11 December 2006 – Secretary-General’s address at the Truman Presidential Museum and Library followed by Questions and Answers”. United Nations website. UN. http://www.un.org/apps/sg/sgstats.asp?nid=2357. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  32. ^ “The Millennium Assembly and the Millennium Summit”. March 2000. http://www.un.org/millennium/sg/report/fact.htm. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  33. ^ “In Larger Freedom”. United Nations website. http://www.un.org/largerfreedom/. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  34. ^ “Annan addresses UNA-UK in London”. United Nations website. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=17358&Cr=Iran&Cr1=nuclear. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  35. ^ “Reforming the United Nations”. United Nations website. http://www.un.org/reform/. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  36. ^ “Reforming the United Nations, Mandate Review”. United Nations website. http://www.un.org/mandatereview. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  37. ^ Annan ‘for president’: Africa: News: News24
  38. ^ “Annan: Kenya factions ‘not capable’ of agreement”. CNN. 25 February 2008. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/africa/02/25/kenya.talks/index.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  39. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23350642/ns/world_news-africa/t/annan-kenya-talks-suspended-without-deal/#.T-8b5L-zgdI. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  40. ^ The Club of Madrid is an independent non-profit organization composed of 81 democratic former Presidents and Prime Ministers from 57 different countries. It constitutes the world’s largest forum of former Heads of State and Government, who have come together to respond to a growing demand for support among leaders in democratic leadership, governance, crisis and post-crisis situations. All lines of work share the common goal of building functional and inclusive societies, where the leadership experience of our Members is most valuable.
  41. ^ United Nations Foundation Board of Directors
  42. ^ APP, Press Release: Africa Progress Panel demands action on global food crisis “reversing decades of economic progress”, 16 June 2008, http://www.africaprogresspanel.org/english/newsreleases.php
  43. ^ “Kofi Annan appointed Chancellor of University of Ghana”. General News of Wednesday, 30 July 2008 (Ghana Home Page). http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=147650. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  44. ^ Kofi Annan joins LKY school. The Straits Times Online. 3 September 2009[1]
  45. ^ The jury for the Conflict Prevention Prize awarded by the Fondation Chirac
  46. ^ Kofi Annan Foundation
  47. ^ Syria faces ultimatum from international conference. BBC News. 23 February 2012[2]
  48. ^ Kofi Annan’s six-point plan for Syria, 27 March 2012, Aljazeera
  49. ^ Syrian rebels pound military airport, 2 August 2012, CNN.com
  50. ^ Press conference by Kofi Anon, Joint Special Envoy for Syria. United Nations Office at Geneva. 2 August 2012.
  51. ^ Black, Ian (2 August 2012). “Kofi Annan resigns as Syria envoy”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/02/kofi-annan-resigns-syria-envoy. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  52. ^ http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/people/features/11839/index3.html
  53. ^ “Ghana honours famous son Kofi Annan News”. BBC News. 2 August 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/862656.stm. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  54. ^ “Honorary knighthood for Kofi Annan”. Metro. 24 October 2007. http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=72787&in_page_id=34&in_a_source=. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  55. ^ “”Work for a better world” – Speech by Federal President Horst Köhler at a dinner in honour of Mr Kofi Annan, former United Nations Secretary-General”. official website of the Federal President of Germany. 5 May 2008. http://bundespraesident.de/en/Speeches-,11165.645178/Work-for-a-better-world-Speech.htm. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  56. ^ http://archives-trim.un.org/webdrawer/rec/552938/view/Item-in-KAA%20Schoolsuniversities%202002%20-%20oct.%20-%20dec..PDF
  57. ^ “Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A”. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/publications/BookofMembers/ChapterA.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

[edit] External links

Biographies, interviews, and profiles
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Secretary-General of the United Nations
Succeeded by
Ban Ki-moon
New office United Nations and Arab League Envoy to Syria
Succeeded by
Lakhdar Brahimi

Source: Wikipedia

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