Mayan Calendar

The Maya calendar is a system of [2]

The essentials of the Maya calendar are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 5th century BCE. It shares many aspects with calendars employed by other earlier Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Zapotec and Olmec, and contemporary or later ones such as the Mixtec and Aztec calendars.[3] Although the Mesoamerican calendar did not originate with the Maya, their subsequent extensions and refinements of it were the most sophisticated.[citation needed] Along with those of the Aztecs, the Maya calendars are the best-documented and most completely understood.[citation needed]

By the Maya mythological tradition, as documented in Colonial Yucatec accounts and reconstructed from Late Classic and Postclassic inscriptions, the deity Itzamna is frequently credited with bringing the knowledge of the calendar system to the ancestral Maya, along with writing in general and other foundational aspects of Maya culture.[4]

Contents

Overview

The Maya calendar consists of several cycles or counts of different lengths. The 260-day count is known to scholars as the [6]

A different calendar was used to track longer periods of time, and for the inscription of base-20), and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it. An important exception was made for the second-order place value, which instead represented 18 × 20, or 360 days, more closely approximating the solar year than would 20 × 20 = 400 days. It should be noted however that the cycles of the Long Count are independent of the solar year.

Many Maya Long Count inscriptions contain a supplementary series, which provides information on the lunar phase, number of the current lunation in a series of six and which of the nine Lords of the Night rules.

A 584-day Venus cycle was also maintained, which tracked the astrologically timed to coincide with stages in this cycle.

Less-prevalent or poorly understood cycles, combinations and calendar progressions were also tracked. An 819-day Count is attested in a few inscriptions. Repeating sets of 9 days (see below “Nine lords of the night”)[10] associated with different groups of deities, animals, and other significant concepts are also known.

Maya concepts of time

With the development of the place-notational Long Count calendar (believed to have been inherited from other Mesoamerican cultures), the Maya had an elegant system with which events could be recorded in a linear relationship to one another, and also with respect to the calendar (“linear time”) itself. In theory, this system could readily be extended to delineate any length of time desired, by simply adding to the number of higher-order place markers used (and thereby generating an ever-increasing sequence of day-multiples, each day in the sequence uniquely identified by its Long Count number). In practice, most Maya Long Count inscriptions confine themselves to noting only the first five coefficients in this system (a b’ak’tun-count), since this was more than adequate to express any historical or current date (20 b’ak’tuns cover 7,885 solar years). Even so, example inscriptions exist which noted or implied lengthier sequences, indicating that the Maya well understood a linear (past-present-future) conception of time.

However, and in common with other Mesoamerican societies, the repetition of the various calendric cycles, the natural cycles of observable phenomena, and the recurrence and renewal of death-rebirth imagery in their mythological traditions were important influences upon Maya societies. This conceptual view, in which the “cyclical nature” of time is highlighted, was a pre-eminent one, and many rituals were concerned with the completion and re-occurrences of various cycles. As the particular calendric configurations were once again repeated, so too were the “supernatural” influences with which they were associated. Thus it was held that particular calendar configurations had a specific “character” to them, which would influence events on days exhibiting that configuration. Divinations could then be made from the auguries associated with a certain configuration, since events taking place on some future date would be subject to the same influences as its corresponding previous cycle dates. Events and ceremonies would be timed to coincide with auspicious dates, and avoid inauspicious ones.[11]

The completion of significant calendar cycles (“period endings”), such as a Yaxha), commemorating the completion, accompanied by dedicatory ceremonies.

A cyclical interpretation is also noted in Maya creation accounts, in which the present world and the humans in it were preceded by other worlds (one to five others, depending on the tradition) which were fashioned in various forms by the gods, but subsequently destroyed. The present world also had a tenuous existence, requiring the supplication and offerings of periodic sacrifice to maintain the balance of continuing existence. Similar themes are found in the creation accounts of other Mesoamerican societies.[12]

Tzolk’in

The Nahuatl language.

The tzolk’in calendar combines twenty day names with the thirteen numbers of the trecena cycle to produce 260 unique days. It is used to determine the time of religious and ceremonial events and for divination. Each successive day is numbered from 1 up to 13 and then starting again at 1. Separately from this, every day is given a name in sequence from a list of 20 day names:

Tzolk’in calendar: named days and associated glyphs
Seq.
Num. 1
Day
Name 2
Glyph
example 3
16th C.
Yucatec 4
reconstructed
Classic Maya 5
Seq.
Num. 1
Day
Name 2
Glyph
example 3
16th C.
Yucatec 4
reconstructed
Classic Maya 5
01 Imix’ Imix Imix (?) / Ha’ (?) 11 Chuwen Chuen (unknown)
02 Ik’ Ik Ik’ 12 Eb’ Eb (unknown)
03 Ak’b’al Akbal Ak’b’al (?) 13 B’en Ben C’klab
04 K’an Kan K’an (?) 14 Ix Ix Hix (?)
05 Chikchan Chicchan (unknown) 15 Men Men (unknown)
06 Kimi Cimi Cham (?) 16 K’ib’ Cib (unknown)
07 Manik’ Manik Manich’ (?) 17 Kab’an Caban Chab’ (?)
08 Lamat Lamat Ek’ (?) 18 Etz’nab’ Etznab (unknown)
09 Muluk Muluc (unknown) 19 Kawak Cauac (unknown)
10 Ok Oc (unknown) 20 Ajaw Ahau Ajaw
NOTES:

  1. The sequence number of the named day in the Tzolk’in calendar
  2. Day name, in the standardized and revised orthography of the Guatemalan Academia de Lenguas Mayas[5]
  3. An example glyph (cartouche” versions)
  4. Day name, as recorded from 16th century Diego de Landa; this orthography has (until recently) been widely used
  5. In most cases, the actual day name as spoken in the time of the Classic Period (ca. 200–900) when most inscriptions were made is not known. The versions given here (in Classic Maya, the main language of the inscriptions) are reconstructed on the basis of phonological evidence, if available; a ‘?’ symbol indicates the reconstruction is tentative.[13]

Some systems started the count with 1 Imix’, followed by 2 Ik’, 3 Ak’b’al, etc. up to 13 B’en. The trecena day numbers then start again at 1 while the named-day sequence continues onwards, so the next days in the sequence are 1 Ix, 2 Men, 3 K’ib’, 4 Kab’an, 5 Etz’nab’, 6 Kawak, and 7 Ajaw. With all twenty named days used, these now began to repeat the cycle while the number sequence continues, so the next day after 7 Ajaw is 8 Imix’. The repetition of these interlocking 13- and 20-day cycles therefore takes 260 days to complete (that is, for every possible combination of number/named day to occur once).

Origin of the Tzolk’in

The exact origin of the Tzolk’in is not known, but there are several theories.

  • One theory is that the calendar came from mathematical operations based on the numbers thirteen and twenty, which were important numbers to the Maya.[citation needed] The numbers multiplied together equal 260.
  • Another theory is that the 260-day period came from the length of human citation needed]
  • A third theory comes from understanding of astronomy, geography and archaeology. The mesoamerican calendar probably originated with the Olmecs, and a settlement existed at Izapa, in southeast Chiapas Mexico, before 1200 BC. There, at a latitude of about 15° N, the Sun passes through zenith twice a year, and there are 260 days between zenithal passages. Gnomons (used generally for observing the path of the Sun and in particular zenithal passages) were found at this and other sites.[14]
  • A fourth theory is that the calendar is based on agriculture. From planting to harvest is approximately 260 days.[citation needed]

Haab’

Haab’ months: names and glyphs[15] in sequence
Seq.
Num.
Yucatec
name
Hieroglyph Meaning of glyph
[16]
Seq.
Num.
Yucatec
name
Hieroglyph Meaning of glyph
1 Pop 10 Yax green[17]
2 Wo’ 11 Sak’ white [17]
3 Sip 12 Keh red [17]
4 Sotz’ 13 Mak
5 Sek 14 K’ank’in
6 Xul 15 Muwan’
7 Yaxk’in’ 16 Pax |
8 Mol 17 K’ayab
9 Ch’en black[17] 18 Kumk’u
19 Wayeb’ five unlucky days

The Haab’ was the Maya solar calendar made up of eighteen months of twenty days each plus a period of five days (“nameless days”) at the end of the year known as Wayeb’ (or Uayeb in 16th C. orthography). The five days of Wayeb’, were thought to be a dangerous time. Foster (2002) writes, “During Wayeb, portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No boundaries prevented the ill-intending deities from causing disasters.” To ward off these evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals they practiced during Wayeb’. For example, people avoided leaving their houses and washing or combing their hair. Bricker (1982) estimates that the Haab’ was first used around 550 BC with a starting point of the winter solstice.[18]

The Haab’ month names are known today by their corresponding names in colonial-era Yukatek Maya, as transcribed by 16th century sources (in particular, Diego de Landa and books such as the Chilam Balam of Chumayel). Phonemic analyses of Haab’ glyph names in pre-Columbian Maya inscriptions have demonstrated that the names for these twenty-day periods varied considerably from region to region and from period to period, reflecting differences in the base language(s) and usage in the Classic and Postclassic eras predating their recording by Spanish sources.[19]

Each day in the Haab’ calendar was identified by a day number in the month followed by the name of the month. Day numbers began with a glyph translated as the “seating of” a named month, which is usually regarded as day 0 of that month, although a minority treat it as day 20 of the month preceding the named month. In the latter case, the seating of Pop is day 5 of Wayeb’. For the majority, the first day of the year was 0 Pop (the seating of Pop). This was followed by 1 Pop, 2 Pop as far as 19 Pop then 0 Wo, 1 Wo and so on.

As a calendar for keeping track of the seasons, the Haab’ was a bit inaccurate, since it treated the year as having exactly 365 days, and ignored the extra quarter day (approximately) in the actual ancient Egyptians.

Calendar Round

A Calendar Round date is a date that gives both the Tzolk’in and Haab’. This date will repeat after 52 Haab’ years or 18,980 days, a Calendar Round. For example, the current creation started on 4 Ahau 8 Kumk’u. When this date recurs it is known as a Calendar Round completion.

Arithmetically, the duration of the Calendar Round can be explained in various ways. One way is to consider that the least common multiple of 260 and 365 is 18980 (73 X 260 Tzolk’in days equalling 52 X 365 Haab’ days).[20]

Not every possible combination of Tzolk’in and Haab’ can occur. For Tzolk’in days Imix, Kimi, Chwen and Kib’, the Haab’ day can only be 4, 9, 14 or 19; for Ik’, Manik’, Eb’ and Kab’an, the Haab’ day can only be 0, 5, 10 or 15; for Akb’al’, Lamat, B’en and Etz’nab’, the Haab’ day can only be 1, 6, 11 or 16; for K’an, Muluk, Ix and Kawak, the Haab’ day can only be 2, 7, 12 or 17; and for Chikchan, Ok, Men and Ajaw, the Haab’ day can only be 3, 8, 13 or 18.

Year Bearer

A “Year Bearer” is a Tzolk’in day name that occurs on the first day of the Haab’. If the first day of the Haab’ is 0 Pop, then each 0 Pop will coincide with a Tzolk’in date, for example, 1 Ik’  0 Pop. Since there are twenty Tzolk’in day names and the Haab’ year has 365 days (20*18 + 5), the Tzolk’in name for each succeeding Haab’ zero day will be incremented by 5 in the cycle of day names like this:

1 Ik’   0 Pop
2 Manik’   0 Pop
3 Eb’   0 Pop
4 Kab’an   0 Pop
5 Ik’   0 Pop…

Only these four of the Tzolk’in day names can coincide with 0 Pop, and these four are called the “Year Bearers”.

“Year Bearer” literally translates a Mayan concept.[23]

The classic system of Year Bearers described above is found at Tikal and in the Dresden Codex. During the Late Classic period a different set of Year Bearers was in use in Campeche. In this system, the Year Bearers were the Tzolk’in that coincided with 1 Pop. These were Ak’b’al, Lamat, B’en and Edz’nab. During the Post-Classic period in Yucatán a third system was in use. In this system the Year Bearers were the days that coincided with 2 Pop: K’an, Muluc, Ix and Kawak. This system is found in the Chronicle of Oxkutzcab. In addition, just before the Spanish conquest in Mayapan the Maya began to number the days of the Haab’ from 1 to 20. In this system the Year Bearers are the same as in the 1 Pop – Campeche system. The Classic Year Bearer system is still in use in the Guatemalan highlands[24] and in Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.[25]

Long Count

East side of stela C, Quirigua with the mythical creation date of 13 baktuns, 0 katuns, 0 tuns, 0 uinals, 0 kins, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku – August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

Since Calendar Round dates repeat every 18,980 days, approximately 52 solar years, the cycle repeats roughly once each lifetime, so a more refined method of dating was needed if history was to be recorded accurately. To specify dates over periods longer than 52 years, Mesoamericans used the Long Count calendar.

The Maya name for a day was k’in. Twenty of these k’ins are known as a winal or uinal. Eighteen winals make one tun. Twenty tuns are known as a k’atun. Twenty k’atuns make a b’ak’tun.

The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from the Mayan creation date 4 Ahaw, 8 Kumk’u (August 11, 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6 in the Julian calendar). But instead of using a base-10 (decimal) scheme like Western numbering, the Long Count days were tallied in a modified base-20 scheme. Thus 0.0.0.1.5 is equal to 25, and 0.0.0.2.0 is equal to 40. As the winal unit resets after only counting to 18, the Long Count consistently uses base-20 only if the tun is considered the primary unit of measurement, not the k’in; with the k’in and winal units being the number of days in the tun. The Long Count 0.0.1.0.0 represents 360 days, rather than the 400 in a purely base-20 (vigesimal) count.

There are also four rarely used higher-order cycles: alautun.

Since the Long Count dates are unambiguous, the Long Count was particularly well suited to use on monuments. The monumental inscriptions would not only include the 5 digits of the Long Count, but would also include the two tzolk’in characters followed by the two haab’ characters.

Misinterpretation of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar was the basis for a popular belief that a cataclysm would take place on December 21, 2012. December 21, 2012 was simply the day that the calendar went to the next b’ak’tun, at Long Count 13.0.0.0.0. The date on which the calendar will go to the next piktun (a complete series of 20 b’ak’tuns), at Long Count 1.0.0.0.0.0, will be on October 13, 4772.

Sandra Noble, executive director of the Mesoamerican research organization Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), notes that “for the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle”. She considers the portrayal of December 2012 as a doomsday or cosmic-shift event to be “a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in.”[26]

Table of Long Count units
Long Count
unit
Long Count
period
Days Approximate
Solar Years
1 K’in   1  
1 Winal 20 K’in 20  
1 Tun 18 Winal 360 1
1 K’atun 20 Tun 7,200 20
1 B’ak’tun 20 K’atun 144,000 394
1 Piktun 20 B’ak’tun 2,880,000 7,885
1 Kalabtun 20 Piktun 57,600,000 157,704
1 K’inchiltun 20 Kalabtun 1,152,000,000 3,154,071
1 Alautun 20 K’inchiltun 23,040,000,000 63,081,429

Supplementary Series

Many Classic period inscriptions include a series of glyphs known as the Supplementary Series. The operation of this series was largely worked out by John E. Teeple (1874–1931). The Supplementary Series most commonly consists of the following elements:

Lords of the Night

Each night was ruled by one of the nine lords of the underworld. This nine day-cycle was usually written as two glyphs: a glyph that referred to the Nine Lords as a group, followed by a glyph for the lord that would rule the next night.

Lunar Series

A lunar Series generally is written as five glyphs that provide information about the current lunation, the number of the lunation in a series of six, the current ruling lunar deity and the length of the current lunation.

Moon age

The Maya counted the number of days in the current lunation. They used two systems for the zero date of the lunar cycle: either the first night they could see the thin crescent moon or the first morning when they could not see the waning moon.[27] The age of the moon was depicted by a set of glyphs that mayanists coined glyphs D and E:

  • A new moon glyph was used for day zero in the lunar cycle.
  • D glyphs were used for lunar ages for days 1 through 19, with the number of days that had passed from the new moon accompanied by a glyph that resembled a hand[citation needed].
  • For lunar ages 20 to 30, an E glyph was used, with the number of days from 20.

Lunation number and lunar deity

The Maya counted the lunation in a cycle of six, numbered zero through 5. Each one was ruled by one of the six Lunar Deities. This was written as two glyphs: a glyph for the completed lunation in the lunar count with a coefficient of 0 through 5 and a glyph for the lunar deity that ruled the current lunation. Teeple found that Quirigua Stela E (9.17.0.0.0) is lunar deity 2 and that most other inscriptions use this same moon number. It is an interesting date because it was a k’atun completion and a solar eclipse was visible in the Maya area two days later on the first unlucky day of Wayeb’.

Lunation length

The length of the lunar month is 29.53059 days so if you count the number of days in a lunation it will be either 29 or 30 days. The maya wrote whether the lunar month was 29 or 30 days as two glyphs: a glyph for lunation length followed by either a glyph made up of a moon glyph over a bundle with a suffix of 19 for a 29 day lunation or a moon glyph with a suffix of 10 for a 30 day lunation.

Short Count

In the kingdoms of Postclassic Yucatán, the linear Long Count notation fell into disuse and gave way to a cyclical Short Count of 13 k’atuns (or 260 tuns), in which each k’atun was named after its concluding day, Ahau (‘Lord’). 1 Imix was selected as the recurrent ‘first day’ of the cycle, corresponding to 1 [28]

Venus cycle

Another important calendar for the Maya was the electional astrology) for their coronations and wars. Maya rulers planned for wars to begin when Venus rose.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Tedlock, Barbara, Time and the Highland Maya Revised edition (1992 Page 1) “Scores of indigenous Guatemalan communities, principally those speaking the Mayan languages known as Ixil, Mam, Pokomchí, and Quiché, keep the 260-day cycle and (in many cases) the ancient solar cycle as well (chapter 4).”
  2. ^ Miles, Susanna W, “An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.” In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, pp. 273–84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.
  3. ^ Rice (2007), p. 33
  4. ^ See entry on Itzamna, in Miller and Taube (1993), pp.99–100.
  5. ^ Mayanist community, see Kettunen & Hemke (2005), p. 5
  6. ^ Tedlock (1992), p. 1
  7. ^ “Mythological” in the sense that when the Long Count was first devised sometime in the Mid- to Late Preclassic, long after this date; see for e.g. Miller and Taube (1993, p.50).
  8. ^ Finley (2002), Voss (2006, p.138)
  9. ^ Malmström (1997): “Chapter 6: The Long Count: The Astronomical Precision“.
  10. ^ See separate brief Wikipedia article Lords of the Night
  11. ^ Coe (1992), Miller and Taube (1993).
  12. ^ Miller and Taube (1993, pp.68–71).
  13. ^ Classic-era reconstructions are as per Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp.45–46..
  14. ^ Malmström (1997), and http://www.dartmouth.edu/~izapa/izapasite.html
  15. ^ Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp.47–48
  16. 978-0-500-28553-4.
  17. ^ 978-0-500-28553-4.
  18. ^ Zero Pop actually fell on the same day as the solstice on 12/27/−575, 12/27/−574, 12/27/−573, and 12/26/−572 (astronomical year numbering, Universal Time), if you don’t account for the fact that the Maya region is in roughly time zone UT−6. See IMCCE seasons.
  19. ^ Boot (2002), pp.111–114.
  20. ^ For further details, see Thompson 1966: 123-124
  21. ^ Thompson 1966: 124
  22. ^ For a thorough treatment of the Year Bearers, see Tedlock 1992: 89-90; 99-104 and Thompson 1966
  23. ^ See Coe 1965
  24. ^ Tedlock 1992: 92
  25. ^ Miles, Susanna W, “An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.” In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, pp. 273-84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.
  26. ^ As quoted in USA Today (MacDonald 2007). Despite this knowledge questions still remain, as Professor Robert Chalken states “The ancient Maya really saw a lot of value in the calendar and treated it as a sacred thing, for them it was an ongoing process they would finish a cycle, celebrate, and then return to working on it. The question still remains why they stop with no sign of starting up again. It would have made much more sense to stop at the next cycle if they had just gotten ‘sick’ of working on it.”
  27. ^ Thompson, J. Eric S. Maya Hieroglyphic Writing, 1950 Page 236
  28. ^ Roys 1967: 132, 184–185

References

45195586.
Boot, Erik (2002) (PDF). A Preliminary Classic Maya-English/English-Classic Maya Vocabulary of Hieroglyphic Readings. Mesoweb. http://www.mesoweb.com/resources/vocabulary/Vocabulary.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
Bricker, Victoria R. (February 1982). “The Origin of the Maya Solar Calendar”. 62217742.
Coe, Michael D. (1965). “A Model of Ancient Maya Community Structure in the Maya Lowlands”. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 21.
Coe, Michael D. (1987). The Maya (4th revised ed.). London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27455-X. OCLC 15895415.
Coe, Michael D. (1992). Breaking the Maya Code. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05061-9. OCLC 26605966.
Finley, Michael (2002). “The Correlation Question”. The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices. Maya Astronomy. Archived from the original on 2006-12-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20061207090102/http://members.shaw.ca/mjfinley/corr.html. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
Foster, Lynn V. (2002). Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. with Foreword by Peter Mathews. New York: 50676955.
Ivanoff, Pierre (1971). Mayan Enigma: The Search for a Lost Civilization. Elaine P. Halperin (trans.) (translation of Découvertes chez les Mayas, English ed.). New York: Delacorte Press. 150172.
Jacobs, James Q. (1999). “Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy: A Review of Contemporary Understandings of Prehispanic Astronomic Knowledge”. Mesoamerican Web Ring. jqjacobs.net. http://www.jqjacobs.net/mesoamerica/meso_astro.html. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
Jones, Christopher (1984). Deciphering Maya Hieroglyphs. Carl P. Beetz (illus.) (prepared for Weekend Workshop April 7 and 8, 1984, 2nd ed.). Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 11641566.
Kettunen, Harri; and Christophe Helmke (2005) (PDF). Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs: 10th European Maya Conference Workshop Handbook. Leiden, Netherlands: Wayeb and http://www.mesoweb.com/resources/handbook/. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
MacDonald, G. Jeffrey (27 March 2007). “Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?”. USA Today (McLean, VA: Gannett Company). ISSN 0734-7456. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2007-03-27-maya-2012_n.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
Malmström, Vincent H. (1997). Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization. Austin: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~izapa/CS-MM-Cover.html. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
Milbrath, Susan (1999). Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars. The Linda Schele series in Maya and pre-Columbian studies. Austin: 40848420.
27667317.
Rice, Prudence M., Maya Calendar Origins: Monuments, Mythistory, and the Materialization of Time (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007) .
59432784.
Roys, Ralph L. (1967). The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
145324300.
Tedlock, Barbara (1992 rev. ed.). Time and the Highland Maya. Albuquerque: 7653289.
11467786.
http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18973/.
Thompson, J. Eric S. (1960 and subsequent printings). Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: An Introduction. Civilization of the American Indian Series, No. 56 (3rd ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-0447-3. OCLC 275252.
Tozzer, Alfred M. notes, trans., ed. (1941). Landa’s Relación de las cosas de Yucatán: a translation. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University vol. 18. Charles P. Bowditch and Ralph L. Roys (additional trans.) (translation of Diego de Landa‘s Relación de las cosas de Yucatán [orig. ca. 1566], with notes, commentary, and appendices incorporating translated excerpts of works by Gaspar Antonio Chi, Tomás López Medel, Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, and Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas. English ed.). Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 625693.
Voss, Alexander (2006). “Astronomy and Mathematics”. In 71165439.

External links



Source: Wikipedia

Leave a Reply