Syrian Civil War

Syrian civil war
Part of the Arab Spring

Clockwise from top left: Opposition protest in Free Syrian Army; FSA members with captured tank; burning building in Homs; Syrian Army checkpoint in Damascus.

(For a war map of the current situation in Syria, see here)

Date 15 March 2011 (2011-03-15)ongoing
(1 year, 8 months, 2 weeks and 2 days)
Location Syria
Result Ongoing
Belligerents
 Syria

 [3]

Hezbollah[5]

[6]

  • Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas brigade[6]

PFLP–GC[7]

(For other forms of foreign support, see here)

Syrian opposition

Supported by:
 Turkey[13] (including border clashes)
 Saudi Arabia[13]
 Qatar[13]

(For other forms of foreign support, see here)


Flag of Jihad.svg Mujahideen[14]

Supported by:
 Qatar[17]
 Saudi Arabia[17]


PYD*

Supported by:
Iraqi Kurdistan Iraqi Kurdistan[19]
(*The PYD has also experienced clashes with the Syrian opposition. See also: 2012 Syrian Kurdistan rebellion)

Commanders and leaders
Bashar al-Assad
President of Syria
Sec. (head) Syrian Regional Command – Ba’ath Party

Gen. Fahd Jassem al-Freij
Deputy Commander in Chief
Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Abdullah al-Ahmar  (POW)
Former Secretary General – Ba’ath Party (pan-Arab organisation)
Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Gen. Mohammed Saeed Bekheitan (WIA)
Asst. Sec. Syrian Regional Command – Ba’ath Party
Wael Nader al-Halqi
Prime Minister
Gen. Dawoud Rajiha 
Minister of Defense (August 2011 – July 2012)
Gen. Ali Abdullah Ayyoub
Chief of Army Staff
Gen. Maher al-Assad
Republican Guard Commander
Namir al-Assad
Shabiha Leader[20]
Gen. Assef Shawkat 
Deputy Defense Minister (September 2011 – July 2012)
Ali Mamlouk
National Security Minister
Gen. Rustum Ghazaleh
Political Security Directorate
Gen. Mohammad al-Shaar (WIA)
Interior Minister
Hisham Ikhtiyar 
Intelligence head (until July 2012)
Hasan Turkmani 
Deputy Vice President (until July 2012)

Gen. Ahmad Vahidi
Defense Minister of Iran[21]
Brig. Gen. Hossein Hamadani
Commander of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Syria[23]

Hassan Nasrallah
Secretary-General of Hezbollah
Ali Hussein Nassif 
Commander of Hezbollah in Syria

Moaz al-Khatib al-Hasani
Leader of National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

George Sabra
Syrian National Council (SNC) Chairman
Riad al-Asaad
Free Syrian Army Commander
Mustafa al-Sheikh
Higher Military Council Head
Mohammad Riad Aal-Shaqfeh
Muslim Brotherhood Leader
Haitham al-Maleh
Council of Syrian Revolutionary Trustees Head
Abdul Razzaq Tlass
Farouq Battalion Commander
Abdul Halim Khaddam
Vice President of Syria (March 1984– June 2005)
Riyad Farid Hijab
Prime Minister (23 June – 6 August 2012)[24]
Abdul Jabbar al-Oqeidi
FSA Head of Aleppo
Mahdi al-Harati
Liwaa Al-Umma commander (Libyan volunteer)
[25]


Salih Muslim Muhammad
Feysel Yusuf
Abdul Hakim Bashar

Strength
Syrian Armed Forces: 200,000[26]

General Security Directorate: 8,000
Shabiha militiamen: 10,000 fighters
[28]
Hezbollah: 1,500 fighters[29]
Shiism arabic blue.PNG 500 fighters[6]

70,000–100,000 fighters[30]

  • 30,000 defectors (by July 2012)[31]
  • 6,000 Liwaa Al-Umma fighters (including 600 foreigners)[32]

1,200–1,500 foreign Mujahideen[33]


4,000–4,500 PYD fighters[34]

Casualties and losses
Syrian security forces

10,150–11,939 soldiers and policemen killed,[37]
710+ soldiers and militiamen captured[39]
Hezbollah and
Iranian Basij
590 killed[44]
PFLP–GC
10 killed[45]
Syrian government officials
1,000 killed[46]

Syrian rebels and protesters

10,000 fighters*[49]
33,175 protesters and fighters captured[50]


Foreign Mujahideen
48 killed[53]


Kurdish rebels
at least 9 killed[56]


F4 Phantom pilots killed

39,511[35] Syrians killed overall (opposition claims)**

435 foreign civilians killed (see here)
Jordan 1 Jordanian soldier killed[57]
1.2 million internally displaced[58]
335,000–500,000 refugees[58]

*Number possibly higher due to the opposition counting rebels that were not defectors as civilians.[59]
**Numbers do not include foreign combatants from both sides or Shabiha militiamen who have been killed.

The Syrian civil war,[60] also referred to as the Syrian uprising,[61] is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba’ath Party government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on 15 March 2011 with nationwide demonstrations as part of the wider protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad, as well as the end to nearly five decades of Ba’ath Party rule.

In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising, and soldiers were ordered to open fire on civilians. After months of military sieges, the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. Opposition forces, mainly composed of defected soldiers and civilian volunteers, became increasingly armed and organized as they unified into larger groups, with some groups receiving military aid from several foreign countries. However, the rebels remained fractured, without organized leadership. The Syrian government characterizes the insurgency as “armed terrorist groups.” The conflict has no clear fronts, with clashes taking place in many towns and cities across the country.

The Arab League, United States, European Union, GCC states and other countries have condemned the use of violence against the protesters. China and Russia have opposed attempts to agree to a UN resolution condemning Assad’s actions, and advised against sanctions, saying that such methods could escalate into foreign military intervention.[62] The Arab League suspended Syria’s membership because of the government’s response to the crisis, but sent an observer mission in December 2011, as part of its proposal for peaceful resolution of the crisis. A further attempt to resolve the crisis was made through the appointment of Kofi Annan as a special envoy. On 15 July 2012, the International Committee of the Red Cross assessed the Syrian conflict as a “non-international armed conflict” (the ICRC’s legal term for civil war), thus applying international humanitarian law under the Geneva Conventions to Syria.

According to various sources, between 40,000 and 52,545 people have been killed,[35][63] of which about half were civilians, but also including 20,890–22,680 armed combatants consisting of both the Syrian army and rebel forces,[35][47][36][37] up to 2,210 opposition protesters[48][49] and 1,000 government officials.[46] By October 2012, up to 28,000 people were reported missing including civilians forcibly abducted by government troops or security forces.[64] According to the UN, about 1.2 million Syrians have been displaced within the country.[58] To escape the violence, hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries. In addition, tens of thousands of protesters have been imprisoned, and there have been reports of widespread torture in the government’s prisons.[65][66] International organizations have accused the government and Shabiha of severe human rights violations.[67] Anti-government rebels have been accused of human rights abuses as well.[68] The vast majority of abuses have, however, been committed by the Syrian government’s forces.[69]

Contents

Background

History

The Ba’ath Party government came to power in 1963 after a successful coup d’état. In 1966, another coup overthrew the traditional leaders of the party, Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar.[70] In 1970, the Defense Minister Hafez al-Assad seized power and declared himself President, a position he would hold until his death in 2000. Since then, the Ba’ath Party has remained the sole authority in Syria, and Syrian citizens may only approve the President by referendum and do not hold multi-party elections for the legislature.[71] In 1982, at the height of a six-year Islamist insurgency throughout the country, Hafez al-Assad conducted a scorched earth policy against the town of Hama to quell an uprising by the Sunni Islamist community, including the Muslim Brotherhood and others.[72] This became known as the Hama massacre, which left tens of thousands dead.[73]

The issue of Hafez al-Assad’s succession prompted the 1999 Latakia protests,[74] when violent protests and armed clashes erupted following the 1998 People’s Assembly Elections. The violent events were an explosion of a long-running feud between Hafez al-Assad and his younger brother Rifaat.[74] Two people were killed in fire exchanges between Syrian police and Rifaat’s supporters during a police crackdown on Rifaat’s port compound in Latakia. According to opposition sources, denied by the government, the protests resulted in hundreds dead and injured.[75] Hafez al-Assad died one year later, from pulmonary fibrosis. He was succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad, who was appointed after a constitutional amendment lowered the age requirement for President from 40 to his age of 34.[71]

Bashar al-Assad, who speaks English fluently and [78]

Religion

The Assef Shawkat, was the deputy minister of defense. Because the government is dominated by the Alawite sect, it has had to make some gestures toward the majority Sunni sects and other minority populations in order to retain power.

Socioeconomics

Discontent against the government was stronger among people in the nation’s poorer areas.[85]

Human rights

The state of [87]

Rights of expression, association and assembly are strictly controlled in Syria.[91]

[94] Occasional clashes between Kurdish protesters and security forces have since continued.

Arab Spring

In December 2010, mass anti-government protests began in Tunisia and later spread across the Arab world, including Syria. By February 2011, revolutions occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, while Libya began to experience a civil war. Numerous other Arab countries also faced protests, with some attempting to calm the masses by making concessions and governmental changes. The events were later commonly referred to as the Arab Spring.

Chemical weapons

The issue of chemical weapons has been important, as Syria is thought to have the third largest stockpile of such weapons in the world, and opposition forces are concerned they may be used as a last resort to remain in power by the regime.[97]

Syrian foreign ministry spokesman [104]

On 28 September [99]

Uprising and civil war

Beginnings of protests

Flag of Syria (1932-58) used by the Syrian opposition

Before the uprising in Syria began in mid-March 2011, protests were relatively modest, considering the wave of unrest that was spreading across the Arab world. Syria remained what Al Jazeera described as a “kingdom of silence”, due to strict security measures, a relatively popular president, religious diversity, and concerns over the prospects of insurgency like that seen in neighboring Iraq.[106]

The events began on 26 January 2011,[109]

“Down with Bashar al-A[ssad]”. Government-critical graffiti was an early sign of the uprising.

On 3 February, a “Day of Rage” was called for in Syria from 4–5 February on social media websites Facebook and Twitter; however, protests failed to materialize within the country itself.[112]

On 6 March young boys were arrested in the city of Daraa for writing the slogan “the people want to overthrow the regime” on walls across the city. The following day 13 political prisoners went on a hunger strike protesting “political detentions and oppression” in their country demanding the implementation of civil and political rights. Three days later dozens of Syrian Kurds started their own hunger strike in solidarity with these other strikers.[113] During this time, Ribal al-Assad, a government critic, said that it was almost time for Syria to be the next domino in the burgeoning Arab Spring.[114]

Revolt and escalating protests

A student rally in support of Bashar al-Assad at Latakia, Syria.

Demonstration in Homs against Assad

The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 15 March, when the protest movement began to escalate, as simultaneous demonstrations took place in major cities across Syria.[117]

On 16 March, some 200 people gathered in front of the Interior Ministry, calling for the release of political prisoners. Thousands of protesters gathered in al-Hasakah, Daraa, [119]

These events lead to a “Friday of Dignity” on 18 March, when large-scale protests broke out in several cities, including Banias, Damascus, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir az-Zor and Hama. Police responded to the protests with tear gas, water canons, beatings and even live ammunition. At least 6 people were killed and many others injured. Over the course of the uprising, protests often gathered after Friday communal prayers at central mosques. Over the next few days the security forces broke up a silent gathering in Marjeh square in Damascus. The protest saw to 150 people holding up pictures of their family and friends who were imprisoned by the regime. Security forces also shot people dead in Daraa. This incident led to thousands taking to the streets calling for democracy. The security crackdown on these protesters led to several more days of protests and even more civilians shot dead by the security forces.[113]

Increasingly, the city of [122]

Domestic response

Arrests and torture

Even before the uprising began, the Syrian government conducted numerous arrests of protestors, political activists and human rights campaigners, many of whom were labeled “terrorists” by Assad. In early February, authorities arrested several activists, including political leaders Ghassan al-Najar,[125]

The police often responded to the protests violently, not only using water cannons and tear gas, but also beating protesters and firing live ammunition.[126]

As the uprising began, the Syrian government waged a campaign of arrests that had caught tens of thousands of people, according to lawyers and activists in Syria and human rights groups. In response to the uprising, Syrian law had been changed to allow the police and any of the nation’s 18 security forces to detain a suspect for eight days without a warrant. Arrests focused on two groups: political activists, and men and boys from the towns that the Syrian Army would start to besiege in April.[127]

Many of those detained experienced various forms of torture and ill-treatment. Many detainees were cramped in tight rooms and were given limited resources, and some were beaten, electrically jolted, or debilitated. At least 27 torture centers, run by Syrian intelligence agencies were revealed by Human Rights Watch on 3 July 2012.[128]

Concessions

Pro-Assad rally in Lattakia

During March and April, the Syrian government, hoping to alleviate the unrest, offered political reforms and policy changes. Authorities shortened mandatory army conscription,[131] Many of these announced reforms were never implemented.

The government, dominated by the Alawite sect, made some concessions to the majority Sunni and some minority populations. Authorities reversed a ban that restricted teachers from wearing the [92]

A popular demand from protestors was an end of the nation’s state of emergency, which had been in effect for nearly 50 years. The emergency law had been used to justify arbitrary arrests and detention, and to ban political opposition. After weeks of debate, Assad signed the decree on 21 April, lifting Syria’s state of emergency.[133]

Crackdown

Opposition demonstration in Baniyas

Anti-government protests continued in April, with activists unsatisfied with what they considered vague promises of reform from Assad.[136]

Censorship of events

Since demonstrations began in March, the Syrian government has restricted independent news coverage, barring foreign free press outlets and arresting reporters who try to cover protests. Some journalists had been reported to have gone missing, been detained, been tortured in custody, or been killed on duty. International media have relied heavily on footage shot by civilians, who would often upload the files on the internet.[137]

The government disabled mobile phones, landlines, electricity, and the Internet in several places. Authorities had extracted passwords of social media sites from journalists through beatings and torture. The pro-government online group the Syrian Electronic Army had frequently hacked websites to post pro-regime material, and the government has been implicated in malware attacks targeted at those reporting on the crisis. The government also targeted and tortured political cartoonists who were critical of the crackdown.[138]

Propaganda

Anti-government demonstration in Baniyas

[142]

Defections

When the uprising began in mid-March, many analysts believed that the Syrian government would remain intact, partly due to strict loyalty tests and the fact that most top-position officials belonged to the same sect as Assad, the Alawites. However, in response to the use of lethal force against unarmed protesters, many soldiers and low-level officers began to desert from the Syrian Army. Many soldiers who refused to open fire against civilians were summarily executed by the army. As the uprising progressed, senior military officers and government officials began to defect as well to the opposition.[143] The number of defections would increase during the following months, as army deserters began to group together to form fighting units. Over the course of the uprising and the subsequent civil war, the opposition fighters would become more well-equipped and organized as they received funds and supplies from foreign nations.

Important defectors included [145]

Protests and military sieges

Opposition demonstration in one of Homs’ districts

As the protests and unrest continued, the Syrian government began launching major military operations to suppress resistance. This signaled a new phase in the uprising, as the government response changed from a mix of concessions and force to violent repression. On 25 April, [148] By 5 May, most of the protests had been suppressed, and the military began pulling out of Daraa. However, some troops remained to keep the situation under control.

During the crackdown in Daraa, the Syrian Army also besieged and blockaded several towns and suburbs around Damascus. Throughout May, situations similar to those that occurred in Daraa were reported in other besieged towns and cities, such as [152]

The military crackdown, led by an Alawite government, worsened tensions between Sunnis and Alawites in the country. A 17 May report of claims by refugees coming from Telkalakh on the Lebanese border indicated that sectarian attacks may have been occurring. Sunni refugees said that uniformed Alawite Shabiha militiamen were killing Sunnis in the town of Telkalakh. As the uprising progressed, sectarian elements increasingly emerged from the conflict.[153]

In June, the Syrian Army expanded operations, and besieged Rastan and Talbiseh. Some besieged cities and towns were described having famine-like conditions.[154] The army also besieged the northern cities of Jisr ash-Shugur[155] and Maarat al-Numaan near the Turkish border.[156] The Syrian Army claimed the towns were the site of mass graves of Syrian security personnel killed during the uprising and justified the attacks as operations to rid the region of “armed gangs”,[157] though local residents claimed the dead Syrian troops and officers were executed for refusing to fire on protesters.[158] On 30 June, large protests erupted against the Assad government in Aleppo, Syria’s largest city, which were labeled the “Aleppo volcano”.[159]

On 3 July, Syrian tanks were deployed at Hama two days after the city witnessed the largest demonstration against Bashar al-Assad.[161]

Formation of opposition groups

On 29 July, a group of defected officers announced the formation of the Free Syrian Army (FSA), which would become the main opposition army. Composed of defected Syrian Armed Forces personnel and civilian volunteers, the rebel army seeks to remove Bashar al-Assad and his government from power. This began a new phase in the conflict, with more armed resistance against the government crackdown. The FSA would grow in size, to about 20,000 by December, and to an estimated 40,000 by June 2012.[162]

By October, the FSA would start to receive military support from Turkey, who allowed the rebel army to operate its command and headquarters from the country’s southern Hatay province close to the Syrian border, and its field command from inside Syria.[30] The FSA would often launch attacks into Syria’s northern towns and cities, while using the Turkish side of the border as a safe zone and supply route. A year after its formation, the FSA would gain control over many towns close to the Turkish border.

On 23 August, a coalition of anti-government groups was formed, the Syrian National Council. The group, based in Turkey, attempted to organize the opposition. However, the opposition, including the FSA, remained a fractious collection of political groups, longtime exiles, grass-roots organizers and armed militants, divided along ideological, ethnic or sectarian lines.[163]

Throughout August, Syrian forces stormed major urban centers and outlying regions, and continued to attack protests. On 14 August, the Siege of Latakia continued as the Syrian Navy for the first time became involved in the military crackdown. Gunboats fired heavy machine guns at waterfront districts in Latakia as ground troops and security agents backed by armor stormed several neighborhoods, causing up to 28 deaths.[164] Throughout the next few days, the siege dragged on, with government forces and shabiha militia continuing to fire on civilians in the city, as well as throughout the country. The Eid ul-Fitr celebrations, started in near the end of August, were reportedly muted after security forces fired on large demonstrations in Homs, Daraa, and the suburbs of Damascus.[165]

During the first six months of the uprising, the inhabitants of Syria’s two largest cities, Damascus and Aleppo, remained largely uninvolved in the anti-government protests.[167]

Armed clashes

FSA fighters in Idlib province

As military defections increased, sporadic clashes began to occur between the defectors and security forces. On 8 September, the Syrian Army raided the home of the brother of army defector Colonel Hussein Harmouche, one of the first defecting officers. The operation in Idlib province resulted in the death of three defectors and six Syrian Army soldiers. Around this time, defectors in the province and elsewhere began to group together and target Syrian Army patrols. Protests still continued, but they were often dispersed with gunfire by security forces and pro-government militias.[168]

The first major confrontation between the FSA and the Syrian armed forces occurred in [172]

By the beginning of October, clashes between loyalist and defected army units were being reported fairly regularly. During the first week of the month, sustained clashes were reported in Jabal al-Zawiya in the mountainous regions of Idlib province.[173] In mid-October, other clashes in Idlib province include the city of Binnish and the town of Hass in the province near the mountain range of Jabal al-Zawiya.[174][175] In late October, other clashes occurred in the northwestern town of Maarrat al-Nu’man in the province between government forces and defected soldiers at a roadblock on the edge of the town, and near the Turkish border, where 10 security agents and a deserter were killed in a bus ambush.[176] It was not clear if the defectors linked to these incidents were connected to the FSA.[177]

Throughout October Syrian forces continued to suppress protests, with hundreds of killings and arrests reportedly having taken place. The crackdown continued into the first three days of November. On 3 November, the government accepted an Arab League plan that aims to restore the peace in the country. According to members of the opposition, however, government forces continued their suppression of protests. Throughout the month, there were numerous reports of civilians taken from their homes turning up dead and mutilated, clashes between loyalist troops and defectors, and electric shocks and hot iron rods being used to torture detainees.

A FSA fighter engaged in a shootout in Aleppo

The [113]

Escalation

FSA fighters in Idlib

In early November, clashes between the FSA and security forces in Homs escalated as the siege continued. After six days of bombardment, the Syrian Army stormed the city on 8 November, leading to heavy street fighting in several neighborhoods. Resistance in Homs was significantly greater than that seen in other towns and cities, resulting in fierce crackdowns by security forces. The city became what the opposition sometimes called the “Capital of the Revolution”, as the newly formed FSA began to gain ground and control over several quarters of the city.

November saw increasing rebel attacks, as opposition forces grew in number. Since 14 November, sporadic fighting between armed rebels and security forces began to become more frequent in attacked on an airbase in Homs province, causing several personnel casualties.

Burning oil pipeline in Homs

Throughout December, heavy clashes between security and opposition forces continued across the country, especially in Daraa, Homs, Idlib, and Hama provinces, where discontent against the government was greater than that in the rest of the country. Opposition forces became more organized as they launch bolder and more sophisticated attacks. On 1 December, FSA fighters killed eight personnel in a raid on an intelligence building in Idlib. On 15 December, opposition fighters ambushed checkpoints and military bases around Daraa, killing 27 soldiers, in one of the largest attacks yet on security forces.[182]

Neighborhoods in Homs under siege (8 February 2012).

By early 2012 daily protests had dwindled, eclipsed by the spread of armed conflict:[185]

Fighting erupted in Rastan again on 29 January, when dozens of soldiers manning the town’s checkpoints defected and began opening fire on troops loyal to the government. After days of battle, opposition forces gained complete control of the town and surrounding suburbs on 5 February. In a bombing attack on buildings used by Syrian military intelligence in Aleppo, at least 28 people died and 235 were injured on 10 February 2012. It was unclear who the perpetrator of the attack was due to conflicting claims.[186]

By February, intense fighting continued in Homs, as rebels claimed to have gained control over two-thirds of the city. However, starting in 3 February, the Syrian army launched a major offensive to retake rebel-held neighborhoods. In early March, after weeks of artillery bombardments and heavy street fighting, the Syrian army eventually captured the district of Baba Amr, a major rebel stronghold. The Syrian Army also captured the district of Karm al-Zeitoun by 9 March, where activists claimed that government forces killed 47 women and children. By the end of March, the Syrian army retook control of half a dozen districts, leaving them in control of 70 percent of the city.[187]

Ceasefire attempt

Kofi Annan’s peace plan provided for a ceasefire, but even as the negotiations for it were being conducted, Syrian armed forces attacked a number of towns and villages, and summarily executed scores of people.[190] The peace plan practically collapsed by early June and the UN mission was withdrawn from Syria. Annan officially resigned on 2 August 2012.

Renewed fighting

Situation in Syria during June 2012[192]

Following the Houla massacre and the consequent FSA ultimatum to the Syrian government, the cease fire practically collapsed towards the end of May 2012, as FSA began nation-wide offensives against the government troops. On 1 June, the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad vowed to crush an anti-regime uprising, after the rebel FSA announced that it was resuming “defensive operations”.[193]

On 2 June 57 soldiers were killed in Syria, the largest number of casualties the military has suffered in a single day since the uprising broke out in mid-March 2011.[193]

Since 5 June, the Syrian army has been battling rebels around the city of Latakia, using tanks and helicopter gunships.[194]

On 6 June 78 civilians were killed in the Al-Qubeir massacre. According to activist sources, government forces started by shelling the village before pro-government militia, the Shabiha, moved in.[195] The UN observers rushed to the village in a hope to investigate the alleged massacre but were met with a road-block and small arms fire before the village and were forced to retreat.[196][197]

At the same time, the conflict has started moving into the two largest cities (Damascus and Aleppo) that the government claimed were being dominated by the silent majority, which wanted stability, not government change. In both places there has been a revival of the protest movement in its peaceful dimension. Shopkeepers across the capital staged a general strike and in several Aleppo commercial districts mounted a similar but smaller protest. This has been interpreted by some as indicating that the historical alliance between the government and the business establishment in the large cities has become weak.[198]

On 22 June, a Turkish [206]

Attempts by the international community to agree a transitional government of national unity failed at the beginning of July after Russia insisted the agreement should not preclude Assad from being part of it.[208]

Battles of Damascus and Aleppo

By mid-July fighting had spread across the country. Acknowledging this, the [210]

On 18 July, [218]

On 19 July, Russia and China vetoed a U.N. resolution that would add sanctions against the Syrian government, showing again the divide in international opinion towards the conflict.[221]

The conflict reached a decisive phase in late July. Government forces managed to break the rebel offensive on Damascus, by pushing out most of the opposition fighters, although fighting still continued in the outskirts. After this, the focus shifted to the battle for control of Aleppo.[222]

On 25 July, multiple sources reported that the Assad government was using fighter jets to attack rebel positions in the cities of Aleppo and Damascus.[224]

In early August, the rebels suffered setbacks. The FSA offensive to capture Aleppo was repelled, and the Syrian Army recaptured Salaheddin district, an important rebel stronghold in Aleppo.

On 19 September, rebel forces seized a border crossing between Syria and Turkey in Ar-Raqqah province. Along with several other border crossings into Turkey and one into Iraq, the capture of this one could provide opposition forces strategic and logistical advantages, allowing greater ease transporting supplies into the country.[225]

In late September, the FSA moved its command headquarters from southern Turkey into rebel-controlled areas of northern Syria.[226]

On 3 October 2012, a [228]

On 9 October, rebel forces seized control of Maarat al-Numan, a strategic town in Idlib province on the highway linking Damascus with Aleppo.[229]

By 18 October, the FSA had captured most of Douma, the biggest suburb of Damascus. Fighting and bombardments continue in the town.[230]

On 22 October, a Jordanian soldier died during a gunfight between Jordanian troops and Islamic militants attempting to cross the border into Syria. Sameeh Maaytah, the Information Minister of Jordan, said the soldier was the first Jordanian military personnel to be killed in clashes connected to the civil war in Syria.[57]

Second ceasefire attempt

Situation of Syria, as of 1 December 2012.

  Cities controlled by the Syrian government
  Cities controlled by opposition or Kurdish forces
  Ongoing conflict/unclear situation

On 25 October, the Syrian government announced via its state media that it would suspend military operations from 26 to 29 October, during Muslim [232]

Northern rebel offensive

After the ceasefire agreement officially ended on 30 October, the Syrian military expanded aerial bombings in Damascus. A bombing of the Damascus district of Jobar was the first instance of a fighter jet being used in Damascus airspace to attack targets in the city. The next day, Gen. Abdullah Mahmud al-Khalidi, a Syrian Air Force commander who described by the state media as one of the country’s top aviation experts, was assassinated by opposition gunmen in the Damascus district of Rukn al-Din.[233]

In early November, rebels made significant gains in Northern Syria. The rebel capture of [236]

On 6 November 7 generals arrived in Turkey to defect, Turkish news media reported.[237]

On 18 November, rebels took control of one of the Syrian Army’s largest military bases in northern Syria, Base 46 in the Aleppo Governorate after weeks of intense fighting with government forces. Defected General Mohammed Ahmed al-Faj, who commanded the assault, hailed the capture of Base 46 as “one of our biggest victories since the start of the revolution” against Bashar al-Assad, claiming nearly 300 Syrian troops had been killed and 60 had been captured with rebels seizing large amounts of heavy weapons and tanks.[238]

On 22 November, rebels captured the Mayadeen military base in the country’s eastern Deir ez Zor province. Activists said this gave the rebels control of a large amount of territory east of the base, to the Iraqi border.[239]

On 29 November, the Syrian government imposed a nationwide internet blackout along with severing phone service, leaving Syrians largely cut off from contact with the outside world. In response, the global hacktivist network Anonymous declared an operation to shut down websites of the Syrian government.[240]

Non-state parties in the conflict

Shabiha

The Shabiha is a militia network established in the 1970s and led by Alawites connected to the Assad family. Since the uprising, the Syrian government has frequently used the group to break up protests and enforce laws in restive neighborhoods.[241]

Shabiha have been described as “a notorious Alawite paramilitary, who are accused of acting as unofficial enforcers for Assad’s regime”;[245]

According to a Syrian citizen, shabiha is a term that was used to refer to gangs involved in smuggling during the [247]

Free Syrian Army

An FSA checkpoint

In late July 2011, a web video featuring a group of uniformed men claiming to be defected Syrian Army officers proclaimed the formation of a Free Syrian Army (FSA). In the video, the men called upon Syrian soldiers and officers to defect to their ranks, and said the purpose of the Free Syrian Army was to defend protesters from violence by the state.[10] Many Syrian soldiers subsequently deserted to join the FSA.[248] The actual number of soldiers who defected to the FSA is uncertain, with estimates ranging from 1,000 to over 25,000 as of December 2011.[249] Nir Rosen, who spent time with the FSA in Syria, claims the majority of its members are civilians rather than defectors, who had taken up arms long before the formation of the FSA was announced. He also stated they have no central leadership.[250] The FSA functions more as an umbrella organization than a traditional military chain of command, and is “headquartered” in Turkey. As such, it cannot issue direct orders to its various bands of fighters, but many of the most effective armed groups are fighting under the FSA’s banner.

As deserting soldiers abandoned their armored vehicles and brought only light weaponry and munitions, FSA adopted [252]

More than 3,000 members of the Syrian security forces have been killed, which the Syrian government states is due to “armed gangs” being among the protesters, yet the opposition blames the deaths on the government.[257]

Daniel Byman believes the political and military opposition are each worryingly divided and disconnected from each other,[262]

Syrian National Coalition

International recognition (green) of the National Coalition as the legitimate government of Syria (red).

Coalition members in Sabra.

On 11 November 2012 in Doha, the National Council and other opposition forces united as the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. The following day it was recognized as the legitimate government of Syria by Gulf states. Delegates to the leadership council are to include women and representatives of religious and ethnic minorities, including Awalites. The military council will reportedly include the Free Syrian Army.[263]

Organized crime

Sanctions from the US, EU, and the Arab League significantly hindered the Syrian economy, especially international trade. In response, the Syrian government began to work more with criminal organizations, who smuggle goods and money in and out of the country. Syria has experience with working with criminal groups for profit, sometimes offering them protection. During the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, members of the Syrian government ran drug production and counterfeiting operations that resulted in an estimated $500 million of profit per year. The economic downturn caused by the conflict and sanctions also led to lower wages for Shabiha members. In response, some Shabiha members began stealing civilian properties, and engaging in kidnappings.[241]

Rebel forces sometimes relied on criminal networks to obtain weapons and supplies. Black market weapon prices in Syria’s neighboring countries have significantly increased since the start of the conflict. To generate funds to purchase arms, some rebel groups have turned towards extortion, stealing, and kidnapping.[241]

Sectarianism

At the uprising’s outset, some protesters reportedly chanted “Christians to Beirut; Alawites to the coffin”.[267]

Al-Nusra Front, an Islamist militant group, claimed responsibility for the suicide bombings in Aleppo in early October 2012.

The rising sectarianism feared against the Alawite community has led to speculation of a re-creation of the [270]

The [272]

In a TIME report, an anti-Assad activist claimed that the Syrian government had paid government workers to write anti-Alawite graffiti and chant sectarian slogans at opposition rallies.[267]

In October 2012, fighting broke out between the Assads and the Othman Alawite clans in the Assad’s hometown of Qardaha over whether or not to support Bashar Assad. Locals claim that fighting began when a local from the Othman clan protested the war to Mohammed Assad, Assad’s father and alleged Shabiha leader. Mohammed al Assad was greatly angered by this, and attacked the family’s home with several other gunmen. Not long after, a shootout ensued between the Othmans and Mohammed Assad, resulting in Mohammed Assad being seriously injured and sent to the hospital, with his current status unknown. Several members from the Othman clan were killed. Protests against Assad began popping up in Qardaha and Latakia, and the Syrian army sent soldiers and tanks to try quell dissent in Qardaha.[273]

In October 2012, various Iraqi religious sects join the conflict in Syria on both sides. Sunnis from Iraq, have traveled to Syria to fight against President Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian government.[274] Also, Shiites from Iraq, in Babil Province and Diyala Province, have traveled to Damascus from Tehran, or from the Shiite holy city of Najaf, Iraq to protect Sayyida Zeinab, an important Shiite shrine in Damascus.[274] According to Abu Mohamed, with the Sadrist Trend, said he recently received an invitation from the Sadrists’ leadership to discuss the shrine in Damascus.[274] A senior Sadrist official and former member of Parliament, speaking said that convoys of buses from Najaf, under the cover story of pilgrims, were carrying weapons and fighters to Damascus.[274] Some of the pilgrims were members of Iran‘s elite Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.[274] Some Shiites “describe the Syrian conflict as the beginning of the fulfillment of a Shiite prophecy that presages the end of time by predicting that an army, headed by a devil-like figure named Sufyani, will rise in Syria and then conquer Iraq’s Shiites.”[274] According to Hassan al-Rubaie, a Shiite cleric from Diyala Province, said, “The destruction of the shrine of Sayyida Zeinab in Syria will mean the start of sectarian civil war in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia.” [274]

Kurdish stance

Ma’bada
Qahtaniya
Sheikh Maqsoud
Ashrafiyeh
Al Qus
Towns under Kurdish control

Kurds showing their support for the PYD in Afrin during the conflict

Syrian Kurds represented 10% of Syria’s population at the start of the uprising. They had suffered from decades of discrimination and neglect, being deprived of basic civil, cultural, economic and social rights. Additionally, since 1962, they and their children had been denied Syrian nationality, a situation that led to other problems relating to personal status and an inability to seek employment in the public sector.[280]

A PYD checkpoint in Afrin during the Syrian civil war

On 7 October 2011, prominent Kurdish rights activist Mishaal al-Tammo was assassinated when masked gunmen burst into his flat, with the Syrian government blamed for his death. At least 20 other civilians were also killed during crackdowns on demonstrations across the country. The next day, more than 50,000 mourners marched in Al-Qamishli to mark Tammo’s funeral, and at least 14 were killed when security forces fired on them.[281]

In 2012, several cities with large Kurdish populations, such as Qamishli and Al-Hasakah, began witnessing protests of several thousand people against the Syrian government, which responded with tanks and fired upon the protesters.[282]

Some in the opposition have claimed that the PKK, a Kurdish separatist group in Turkey, is helping the Syrian government in the conflict. However, Murat Karayilan, the leader of the PKK, has denied such claims, stating that the Kurds in Syria do not support either side.[283]

In May 2012, a delegation of the Kurdish National Council (KNC), a coalition of ten Syrian-Kurdish parties established in October 2011, was invited to Washington for talks. Amongst others the delegation met Robert Ford, the former U.S. ambassador to Syria.[284]

On 15 June, it was reported that Kurds had helped government soldiers defeat FSA fighters in the town of [286]

On 19 July, Kurdish militias from [288]

Palestinians

The reaction of the approximately 500,000[291]

Foreign reaction and involvement

International reaction

The conflict in Syria received significant international attention. The Arab League,[292] European Union,[293] Secretary-General of the United Nations,[294] and many Western governments condemned the Syrian government’s violent response to the protests, and many expressed support for the protesters’ right to exercise free speech.[295] Russia and China consistently rejected any United Nations resolution that would impose sanctions on Syria.[296] Russia denounced the use of violence by the opposition, and claimed that “terrorists” are present within its ranks.[297] Iran also expressed support for Assad.[163] Both the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Arab League have suspended Syria from membership.

Military support

Qatar, Turkey has also provided the rebels with arms and other military equipment.

In June 2012, Syrian air defenses shot down a Turkish [300]

In late 2012, tensions between [305]

In 2012, the [311]

[316]

[320]

Some analysts have interpreted the Syrian conflict as part of a regional [322]

Impact

In August 2012, the United Nations said 2.5 million people needed help due to the civil war, and more than one million people were internally displaced.[323]

Deaths

Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria

Estimates of deaths in the conflict vary, with figures ranging from 40,000 to 52,545.[63]

One problem has been determining the number of “armed combatants” who have died, due to some sources counting rebel fighters who were not defectors as civilians.[330]

Human rights violations

Weekly deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria

The “vast majority” of human rights violations, including the [338]

In October, Amnesty International published a report stating that at least 30 Syrian dissidents living in Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States, faced intimidation by Syrian embassy officials, and that in some cases, their relatives in Syria were harassed, detained, and tortured. Syrian embassy officials in London and Washington, D.C., were alleged to have taken photographs and videos of local Syrian dissidents and sent them to Syrian authorities, who then retaliated against their families.[339]

With regard to armed opposition groups, the UN accused them of: unlawful killing; torture and ill-treatment; kidnapping and hostage taking; and the use of children in dangerous non-combat roles.[332]:4–5

Crime wave

Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo

As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state, and many police stations stopped functioning. Rates of thievery increased, with criminals looting houses and stores. Rates of kidnappings increased as well. Rebel fighters were sighted stealing cars and destroying an Aleppo restaurant in which Syrian soldiers had eaten.[340]

As of July 2012, the human rights group [342]

Refugees

The violence in Syria has caused hundreds of thousands to flee their homes, with many seeking safety in nearby countries. Jordan has seen the largest influx of refugees since the conflict began, followed by Turkey, Lebanon, and Iraq. On 9 October 2012, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that the number of Syrian refugees had increased to between 355,000 to 500,000.[58]

Cultural heritage

The civil war has caused damage to both Syrian cultural heritage and [344]

Effects on Lebanon

The Syrian civil war is spilling into Lebanon, leading to incidents of sectarian violence in northern Lebanon between supporters and opponents of the Syrian government, and armed clashes between Sunnis and Alawites in Tripoli.[345]

On 17 September 2012, Syrian [346]

On 22 September, a group of armed members of the Free Syrian Army attacked a border post near Arsal. The group were chased off into the hills by the Lebanese Army, who detained and later released some rebels due to pressure from dignified locals. President Sleiman praised the actions taken by the military as maintaining Lebanon’s position being “neutral from the conflicts of others”. He called on border residents to “stand beside their army and assist its members.” Syria has repeatedly called for an intensified crackdown on rebels that it says are hiding in Lebanese border towns.[347][348]

On 11 October, four shells fired by the Syrian military hit Qaa, where previous shelling incidents had caused fatalities.[349]

On 19 October, a car bomb exploded in central Beirut, killing a top Lebanese security official, Wissam al-Hassan. At least 7 others were killed and perhaps 80 were injured in the blast.[350]

Refugee children from Syria have been displaced into the border towns, threatening to overwhelm the Beqaa educational system.[351]

See also

References

  1. ^ Saeed Kamali Dehghan (28 May 2012). “Syrian army being aided by Iranian forces”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/28/syria-army-iran-forces. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  2. ^ “Iranian Guards, Mahdi Army troops enter Syria’s Druze Mountain”. NowLebanon. 15 February 2012. http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=364902. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  3. ^ Daftari, Lisa (28 August 2012). “Iranian general admits ‘fighting every aspect of a war’ in defending Syria’s Assad”. FOX News. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/08/28/iranian-general-admits-fighting-every-aspect-war-in-defending-syria-assad/. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  4. ^ “Battle for Aleppo Intensifies, as World Leaders Pledge New Support for Rebels”. The New York Times. 28 September 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/29/world/middleeast/syria.html. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  5. ^ “Iran’s Hizbullah sends more troops to help Assad storm Aleppo, fight Sunnis”. World News Tribune. 29 July 2012. http://www.worldnewstribune.com/2012/07/29/irans-hizbullah-sends-more-troops-to-help-assad-storm-aleppo-fight-sunnis/. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  6. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/16/us-syria-crisis-iraq-militias-idUSBRE89F0PX20121016. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  7. ^ “Syria rebels ‘clash with army, Palestinian fighters'”. Agence France-Presse. 30 October 2012. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jevFaBhWboO5_Mqrgpk7ycShh4RQ?docId=CNG.493b5bfef777e0c4e6e2103828c1614e.1b1. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  8. ^ “Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal”. USA Today. 11 November 2012. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2012/11/11/syrian-opposition-deal/1697693/. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  9. ^ “Syrian opposition groups sign coalition deal”. Al Jazeera. 11 November 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/11/20121111141834268537.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  10. ^ http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2011/me_syria0973_08_03.asp. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  11. ^ “Syrian Rebels Plot Their Next Moves: A TIME Exclusive”. Time. 11 February 2012. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,2106648,00.html/.
  12. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Jul-18/181033-palestinians-join-syria-revolt-activists-fsa.ashx#axzz2Aniktc00. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  13. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/world/middleeast/cia-said-to-aid-in-steering-arms-to-syrian-rebels.html. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  14. http://world.time.com/2012/07/26/time-exclusive-meet-the-islamist-militants-fighting-alongside-syrias-rebels/#ixzz21jq5iPsN. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  15. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Jul-31/182750-arab-islamist-fighters-eager-to-join-syria-rebels.ashx#axzz22DnnnVxi. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  16. ^ Sherlock, Ruth (12 July 2012). “Al-Qaeda tries to carve out a war for itself in Syria”. The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9396256/Al-Qaeda-tries-to-carve-out-a-war-for-itself-in-Syria.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  17. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/world/middleeast/jihadists-receiving-most-arms-sent-to-syrian-rebels.html. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  18. ^ “Kurds Give Ultimatum to Syrian Security Forces”. Rudaw. 21 July 2012. http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurds/4979.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  19. ^ “Syrian Kurds given military training in northern Iraq, says Barzani”. Zaman. 27 July 2012. http://www.todayszaman.com/newsDetail_getNewsById.action?newsId=287475. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  20. ^ Dougherty, Jill (9 August 2012). “Al-Assad’s inner circle, mostly family, like ‘mafia'”. CNN. http://security.blogs.cnn.com/2012/08/09/assads-inner-circle-will-it-crack/. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  21. ^ Fassihi, Farnaz (27 August 2012). “Iran Said to Send Troops to Bolster Syria. Retrieved 2012-23-10”. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390444230504577615393756632230.html. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  22. ^ “Top Iranian Official Acknowledges Syria Role”. The Wall Street Journal. 16 September 2012. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443720204578000482831419570.html. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  23. ^ “What Is Iran Doing in Syria?”. Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/09/21/what_is_iran_doing_in_syria. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  24. ^ “Syria’s Assad names Riad Hijab as new prime minister”. BBC News. 6 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18338093. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  25. ^ Karadsheh, Jomana (28 July 2012). “Libya rebels move onto Syrian battlefield”. CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/28/world/meast/syria-libya-fighters/index.html. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  26. http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/Syrias_MaturingInsurgency_21June2012.pdf. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  27. ^ “15,000 elite Iranian special-ops ‘head’ to Syria”. Russia Today. 10 February 2012. http://rt.com/news/syria-iran-cooperation-protests-969/. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  28. ^ “Syrian army being aided by Iranian forces”. The Guardian. 28 May 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/28/syria-army-iran-forces. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  29. ^ “Assad backed by 1,500 fighters from Hezbollah, says defector”. The Times. 6 October 2012. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/middleeast/article3560184.ece. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  30. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/syrian-rebels-too-fragmented-unruly.aspx?pageID=238&nID=29158&NewsCatID=352. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  31. ^ “Syria Army Lost 6% of Armored Force – Report”. Arutz Sheva. 7 May 2012. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/157550. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  32. ^ Fitzgerald, Mary (28 July 2012). “Syrian minds focused on likely outcome at Aleppo”. The Irish Times. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2012/0728/1224320949538.html.
  33. ^ Schemm, Paul (19 September 2012). “Extremists showing up on front lines in Syria”. Associated Press. http://bigstory.ap.org/article/extremists-showing-front-lines-syria. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  34. ^ “Syrian Kurds Trade Armed Opposition for Autonomy”. IKJ News. 5 July 2012. http://ikjnews.com/?p=4438. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  35. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i9rOuTnfmcFfdZJmnIB1nsu28n3g?docId=CNG.08f465f0502f24565a5e31b0b7b8211b.91. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  36. ^ http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/world/syrian-rebels-kill-more-soldiers-as-tension-rises-with-turkey/story-fnd134gw-1226494792064. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  37. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/288388/syria-conflict-death-toll-at-least-33000-ngo. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  38. ^ Barnard, Anne (18 October 2012). “Seized by Rebels, Town Is Crushed by Syrian Forces”. The New York Times (Syria). http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/19/world/middleeast/horrific-bombing-in-northern-syria-kills-dozens.html. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  39. ^ “Syrian rebels hold pro-government prisoners in former school”. CNN. 31 July 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/31/world/meast/syria-rebels-prison/index.html. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  40. ^ Kelley, Michael (8 March 2012). “Iranian Fighters Are Killing Syrian Troops Who Refuse to Fire On Protesters”. Business Insider. http://articles.businessinsider.com/2012-03-08/news/31135034_1_syrian-syrian-president-syrian-soldiers. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  41. ^ “Over 120 Hezbollah, Basij fighers killed in Syria, report”. Ya Libnan. 9 December 2011. http://www.yalibnan.com/2011/12/09/over-120-hezbollah-basij-fighers-killed-in-syria-report/. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  42. ^ “Are Hezbollah’s mysterious ‘martyrs’ dying in Syria?”. France24. 7 October 2012. http://www.france24.com/en/20121007-syria-uprising-hezbollah-mysterious-martyrs-killed-line-jihadi-duty-iran-lebanon-fsa. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  43. ^ “Independent International Commission of Inquiry established pursuant to resolution A/HRC/S-17/1 and extended through resolution A/HRC/Res/19/22” (PDF). http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/SpecialSession/CISyria/PeriodicUpdateCISyria.pdf. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  44. ^ Astatih, Paula (15 February 2009). “Syria: FSA kill 60 Hezbollah fighters, retake town”. Asharq-e. http://www.asharq-e.com/news.asp?section=1&id=31423. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  45. ^ Syrian rebels kill 10 pro-Assad militia
  46. ^ David Cameron Offers ‘Safe Passage’ For Syria’s Bashar Al-Assad, But Not To Britain (PICTURES)
  47. ^ ‘Over 40,000 killed since start of Syria conflict’
  48. ^ http://ansamed.ansa.it/ansamed/en/news/sections/politics/2012/03/19/visualizza_new.html_134589467.html. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  49. ^ http://syrianshuhada.com/Default.asp?lang=en&a=la&p=Death&v=%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%AA%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B0%D9%8A%D8%A8&pp=&vv=&ppp=&vvv=&s=&sb=Army. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  50. ^ http://vdc-sy.org/index.php/en/. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  51. ^ Jaber, Hala (17 February 2012). “Sunni fighters bring jihad across border”. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/sunni-fighters-bring-jihad-across-border/story-e6frg6so-1226405923591. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  52. ^ Al, Suleiman (30 July 2012). “Arab Islamist fighters eager to join Syria rebels”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/30/us-syria-crisis-jihad-idUSBRE86T12920120730. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  53. ^ Ghaith Abdul-Ahad (23 September 2012). “Syria: the foreign fighters joining the war against Bashar al-Assad”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/23/syria-foreign-fighters-joining-war. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  54. ^ “Kurdish forces kill six Syrian soldiers in Aleppo”. Kurdistan News Agency. 27 July 2012. http://www.aknews.com/en/aknews/3/318894/. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  55. ^ “Kurdish Syria: From cultural to armed revolution”. Egypt Independent. 28 July 2012. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/kurdish-syria-cultural-armed-revolution. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  56. ^ Syria rebels, Kurdish militia discuss cease-fire, 29 October 2012
  57. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/22/jordanian-soldier-killed-in-clash-with-militants-trying-to-slip-into-syria/. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  58. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/09/us-syria-crisis-refugees-idUSBRE8980ZP20121009. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  59. ^ http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/ngo-more-13000-killed-syria-march-2011. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  60. ^ “Exclusive: Syria now an “internal armed conflict” – Red Cross”. Reuters. 15 July 2012. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/14/uk-syria-crisis-icrc-idUKBRE86D09B20120714. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  61. ^ “Syria’s uprising: From rocks to RPGs”. CNN. 29 July 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/world/meast/syria-watson-aleppo/. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  62. ^ Russia and China: Sabotaging U.N. with vetoes. CNN. 8 February 2012.
  63. ^ http://syrianshuhada.com/?lang=en&. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  64. ^ The Guardian, 19 October 2012
  65. ^ http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/breaking-news/unicef-says-400-children-killed-in-syria/story-e6freonf-1226265280318. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  66. ^ http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/02/03/146346490/rights-group-says-syrian-security-forces-detained-tortured-children. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  67. ^ “UN report accuses Syrian troops of torturing and executing children, and of using children as “human shields””. Al Jazeera. 12 June 2012. http://blogs.aljazeera.com/topic/syria/un-report-accuses-syrian-troops-torturing-and-executing-children-and-using-children. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  68. ^ “Syria: Armed Opposition Groups Committing Abuses”. Human Rights Watch. 20 March 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/20/syria-armed-opposition-groups-committing-abuses. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  69. ^ “Syrian army behind majority of abuses: UN”. News24. 24 May 2012. http://www.news24.com/World/News/Syrian-army-behind-majority-of-abuses-UN-20120524. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  70. ^ Wilson, Scott (25 April 2011). “Syria escalates attacks against demonstrators”. The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2014875394_syria26.html. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  71. ^ http://www.npr.org/2011/04/13/135383023/protests-in-syria-pose-challenges-for-the-u-s. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  72. ^ Shadid, Anthony (26 April 2011). “International Outcry Grows Over Syria Crackdown”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/27/world/middleeast/27syria.html. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  73. ^ Landler, Mark (26 March 2011). “Chaos in Syria and Jordan Alarms U.S”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/27/world/middleeast/27diplomacy.html.
  74. ^ http://books.google.com/?id=dFdbVVcKsSIC.
  75. ^ European World Year Book 2004. 2. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 4056.
  76. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/10646/section/4. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  77. ^ “Syria Smothering Freedom of Expression: the detention of peaceful critics”. Amnesty International. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE24/007/2002/en/ee9fa6f2-d870-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/mde240072002en.html. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  78. ^ “The Damascus Declaration for Democratic National Change”. 15 October 2005. http://www.demdigest.net/damascusdeclaration.html. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  79. ^ Heneghan, Tom (23 December 2011). “Syria’s Alawites are secretive, unorthodox sect”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/23/us-syria-religion-alawites-idUSTRE7BM1J220111223. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  80. ^ Worth, Robert F. (24 April 2011). “Syrian Crisis Tests the Mettle of Its Autocratic Ruler”. The New York Times (Cairo). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/25/world/middleeast/25assad.html. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  81. ^ “Syria Kurd leader vows to keep up democracy struggle”. The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/Headlines/Article.aspx?id=215547. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  82. ^ “US will not intervene in Syria as it has in Libya, says Hillary Clinton”. The Guardian (London). 27 March 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/27/report-12-killed-syrian-port-city. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  83. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/rebels-in-syrias-largest-city-of-aleppo-mostly-poor-pious-and-from-rural-backgrounds/2012/10/16/fbe7ddc6-17d6-11e2-a346-f24efc680b8d_print.html. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
  84. ^ Saleeby, Suzanne (16 February 2012). “Sowing the Seeds of Dissent: Economic Grievances and the Syrian Social Contract’s Unraveling”. Jadaliyya.. http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4383/sowing-the-seeds-of-dissent_economic-grievances-an.
  85. ^ “Youth Exclusion in Syria: Social, Economic, and Institutional Dimensions”. Journalist’s Resource. http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/international/youth-exclusion-in-syria-economic/. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  86. ^ “World Report 2010 Human Rights Watch World Report 2010”, p. 555.
  87. ^ http://report2009.amnesty.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/syria. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  88. ^ Black, Ian (16 July 2010). “Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/16/syrian-human-rights-unchanged-assad.
  89. ^ ISBN 1-56432-331-5.
  90. ^ “Red lines that cannot be crossed”. The Economist. 24 July 2008. http://www.economist.com/node/11792330.
  91. ^ “Bashar Al-Assad, President, Syria”. Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/predator-bashar-al-assad,37213.html. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  92. ^ http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-07/world/syria.kurdish.citizenship_1_kurdish-region-kurdish-identity-stateless-kurds. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  93. ^ Brandon, James (21 February 2007). “The PKK and Syria’s Kurds”. Terrorism Monitor (Washington, DC: The Jamestown Foundation) 5 (3). http://www.jamestown.org/programs/gta/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=1014&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=182&no_cache=1. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  94. ^ Isseroff, Ami (24 March 2004). “Kurdish agony – the forgotten massacre of Qamishlo”. MideastWeb. http://www.mideastweb.org/log/archives/00000231.htm. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  95. ^ “Worries intensify over Syrian chemical weapons”. The Washington Post. 6 September 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/worries-intensify-over-syrian-chemical-weapons/2012/09/06/13889aac-f841-11e1-8253-3f495ae70650_story_1.html. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  96. ^ “Obama warns Syria chemical weapons use may spark US action”. BBC News. 23 August 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19319446. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  97. ^ “France warns of Syrian chemical weapons attack”. Associated Press. Yahoo!. 3 September 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/france-warns-syrian-chemical-weapons-attack-081735822.html. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  98. ^ “Syria Threatens Chemical Attack on Foreign Force”. The New York Times. 23 July 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/24/world/middleeast/chemical-weapons-wont-be-used-in-rebellion-syria-says.html. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  99. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/russia-helps-us-syria-establish-contact-turkey-in-shock/article3949104.ece. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  100. ^ “Syria: Over 27,000 dead as chemical weapons moved to the coastal area”. Al Bawaba. 10 September 2012. http://www.albawaba.com/news/syria-over-27000-dead-chemical-weapons-moved-coastal-area-441405. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  101. ^ “Syria transferred chemical weapons to port city last month, raising alarm bells, report says”. The Times of Israel. 9 September 2012. http://www.timesofisrael.com/us-russia-pounce-at-syrian-chemical-weapons-transfer/. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  102. ^ “Syria Tested Chemical Weapons Systems, Witnesses Say”. Der Spiegel. 17 September 2012. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/syria-tested-chemical-weapons-in-desert-in-august-eyewitnesses-say-a-856206.html. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  103. ^ “Report: Syria tested chemical weapons delivery systems in August”. Haaretz. 17 September 2012. http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/report-syria-tested-chemical-weapons-delivery-systems-in-august-1.465402. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  104. ^ “Syrian rebels take third border crossing to Turkey”. Reuters. 19 September 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/19/syria-crisis-idUSL5E8KJ8NR20120919. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  105. ^ “Syria ‘moving chemical weapons to safety’ – Panetta”. BBC. 28 September 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19763642. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  106. ^ “Syria: ‘A kingdom of silence'”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2011/02/201129103121562395.html. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  107. ^ “أبرز محطات الثورة السورية خلال الأيام الماضية.wmv”. Al Jazeera. 24 April 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h36T5QlbV8w. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  108. ^ “Syrian suicider is ‘Hasan Ali Akleh’. Damascus has banned a demonstration in support of Egypt”. Middle East Transparent. http://www.metransparent.com/spip.php?page=article&id_article=12661&lang=ar. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  109. ^ “Demonstration in Ar-Raqqa, Syria”. free-syria.com. http://free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=37803. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  110. ^ “‘Day of Rage’ Protest Urged in Syria”. MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41400687/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  111. ^ “Demonstration on the day of anger in Hasaka and Syrian authorities arrested dozens”. free-syria.com. http://free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=37849. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  112. ^ Williams, Lauren (24 February 2011). “Syria clamps down on dissent with beatings and arrests”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/24/syria-crackdown-protest-arrests-beatings. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  113. ^ http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/329590. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  114. ^ “Is Syria the next domino?”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2011/03/20113482455647372.html. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  115. ^ “Middle East unrest: Syria arrests Damascus protesters”. BBC News. 16 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12757394. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  116. ^ “In Syria, Demonstrations Are Few and Brief”. The New York Times. 16 March 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/17/world/middleeast/17syria.html. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  117. ^ “Officers Fire on Crowd as Syrian Protests Grow”. The New York Times. 20 March 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/21/world/middleeast/21syria.html. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  118. ^ “ردّدوا هتافات تدعو لمحاربة الفساد وفتح باب الحريات”. Al Arabiya. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/03/15/141661.html. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  119. ^ “مظاهرة شباب الثورة في تركيا”. Al Jazeera. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AbjW0Kuhl8. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  120. ^ Michael Gunning (26 August 2011). “Background to a Revolution”. n+1. http://nplusonemag.com/background-to-a-revolution.
  121. ^ Palmer, Will. “Now That We Have Tasted Hope (Excerpt)”. McSweeney’s. http://byliner.com/rami-jarrah/stories/now-that-we-have-tasted-hope-excerpt. “Demonstrations in Daraa that day reportedly swelled to more than 100,000 people.”
  122. ^ “25 March 2011 Syrian Protests”. NOW Lebanon. Agence France-Presse. 25 March 2011. http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?ID=254495. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  123. ^ “Arrest of leader of the Islamic Democratic movement in Syria”. Elaph. http://www.elaph.com/Web/news/2011/2/629499.html. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  124. ^ “Jailed prominent Syrian opposition for seven and a half years”. free-syria.com. http://free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=37788. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  125. ^ “Syrian authorities detain national identity Adnan Mustafa Abu Ammar”. free-syria.com. http://free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=37802. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  126. ^ “In Syria, Crackdown After Protests”. The New York Times. 18 March 2011. http://travel.nytimes.com/2011/03/19/world/middleeast/19syria.html. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  127. ^ “Syrian Arrests Are Said to Have Snared Tens of Thousands”. The New York Times. 27 June 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/28/world/middleeast/beyond-arms-syria-uses-arrests-against-uprising.html. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  128. ^ “Syria: Torture Centers Revealed”. Human Rights Watch. 3 July 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/07/03/syria-torture-centers-revealed. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  129. ^ “Syrian mourners call for revolt, forces fire tear gas”. Reuters. 19 March 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/19/us-syria-idUSTRE72I22020110319. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  130. ^ “President al-Assad Issues Decree on Discharging Governor of Daraa from His Post”. Syrian Arab News Agency. 24 March 2011. http://sana.sy/eng/21/2011/03/24/pr-338181.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  131. ^ “In Syrian flashpoint town, more deaths reported”. CNN. 25 March 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/03/25/syria.unrest/index.html. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  132. ^ “Syria Reverses Ban on Islamic Face Veil in Schools”. Al Arabiya. Associated Press (Damascus). 6 April 2011. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/04/06/144466.html. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  133. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub; Karouny, Mariam; al-Khalidi, Suleiman; Aboudi, Sami (21 April 2011). “Syria’s Assad ends state of emergency”. Reuters. Beirut, Amman, Cairo. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/21/us-syria-idUSTRE72N2MC20110421. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  134. ^ Stack, Liam (1 April 2011). “Syrian Protesters Clash With Security Forces”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/world/middleeast/02syria.html. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  135. ^ “Opposition: 127 dead as Syrian forces target civilians”. CNN. 7 April 2012. http://articles.cnn.com/2012-04-07/middleeast/world_meast_syria-unrest_1_homs-and-hama-syrian-observatory-network-of-opposition-activists. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  136. ^ Oweis, Khaled (22 April 2011). “Almost 90 dead in Syria’s bloodiest day of unrest”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/22/us-syria-protests-idUSTRE73L1SJ20110422. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  137. http://cpj.org/reports/2012/05/10-most-censored-countries.php#3. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  138. ^ Ali, Nour (25 August 2011). “Syrian forces beat up political cartoonist Ali Ferzat”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/25/syria-cartoonist-ali-ferzat-beaten. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  139. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/09/world/meast/syria-propagandist-defects/. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  140. ^ “State TV reports 6 dead in Damascus ‘terrorist’ blast”. CNN. 8 September 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/07/world/meast/syria-civil-war/index.html. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  141. ^ “Damascus School Struggles to Carry On”. Voice of America. 1 October 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHE6PyiMXgQ. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  142. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/disturbing-fake-videos-are-making-the-rounds-in-syria-2012-11
  143. ^ “Interactive: Tracking Syria’s defections”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/syriadefections/. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  144. ^ Kais, Roy (15 September 2012). “Assad relative defects from regime”. Ynet News. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4281834,00.html. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  145. ^ Dagher, Sam (6 July 2012). “In Paris, Diplomats Cheer Syria General’s Defection”. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304141204577510124016836002.html. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  146. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/26/world/middleeast/26syria.html. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  147. ^ “Civilian killings in Syrian demonstrations rises to 800”. Jerusalemn Post. Last updated 5 July 2011. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=219606. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  148. ^ “Five dead in ‘Day of Defiance'”. http://www.bangkokpost.com/lite/breakingnews/235700/five-dead-in-syria-day-of-defiance. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  149. ^ “Syrian army tanks ‘moving towards Hama'”. BBC News. 5 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13343540. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  150. ^ “Syrian Tanks Enter ‘Protest Hub’ Baniyas”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/05/20115765059910917.html. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  151. ^ “Child Reported Killed as Syrian Forces Crack Down”. MSNBC. 8 May 2011. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42947180/ns/world_news-mideast/n_africa/t/child-reported-killed-syrian-forces-crack-down/. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  152. ^ “Shallow grave yields several bodies in Syrian city marked by unrest”. CNN. 16 May 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/05/16/syria.bodies.found/index.html. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  153. ^ Blanford, Nicholas; Syrian refugees describe gangs fomenting sectarian strife, The Christian Science Monitor, 17 May 2011
  154. ^ Clanet, Christian (10 June 2011). “A French Journalist in Dara’a, Syria’s ‘Ghetto of Death'”. Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2076778,00.html. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  155. ^ “Syrian army starts crackdown in northern town”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/06/201161064328691559.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  156. ^ “‘Many killed’ amid fresh Syria protests”. Al Jazeera. 10 June 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/06/2011610162535580409.html. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  157. ^ “Syrian army reports finding mass grave”. United Press International. 15 June 2011. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2011/06/15/Syrian-army-reports-finding-mass-grave/UPI-20861308154987. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  158. ^ “European powers step up pressure on Syria”. Al Jazeera. 8 June 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/06/2011685648824776.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  159. ^ “Syria unrest: Protests in Aleppo as troops comb border”. BBC News. 30 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13977689. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  160. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13988701. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  161. ^ “Syrian army kills at least 95 in Hama: activist”. Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 31 July 2011. http://www.dawn.com/2011/07/31/syrian-army-kills-at-least-95-in-hama-activist.html. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  162. http://edition.cnn.com/video/?hpt=hp_t2#/video/bestoftv/2012/06/22/exp-syrian-opposition-forces.cnn. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  163. ^ http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/syria/index.html. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  164. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (14 August 2011). “Tank, navy attack on Syria’s Latakia kills 26-witnesses”. Reuters. Amman. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/14/us-syria-idUSTRE77D0LP20110814. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  165. ^ “Syrian forces kill seven protesters as Muslims celebrate first day of Eid”. Al Arabiya. 30 August 2011. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/08/30/164705.html. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  166. ^ “Life in Syria’s Capital Remains Barely Touched by Rebellion”. The New York Times. 5 September 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/world/middleeast/06damascus.html. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  167. ^ http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/110624/syria-protests-assad. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  168. ^ “Syrian army abducts defector’s brother and returns his body to family”. Gulf News. http://gulfnews.com/news/region/syria/syrian-army-abducts-defector-s-brother-and-returns-his-body-to-family-1.863641. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  169. ^ “Syria forces storm main town, fight defectors-residents”. Reuters. 27 September 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/27/syria-town-idUSL5E7KR02A20110927.
  170. ^ http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/thousands-of-troops-desert-from-syrian-army. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  171. ^ “Defected brigade says it has killed 80 members of Assad’s forces”. Al Arabiya. 29 September 2011. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/09/29/169224.html. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  172. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (4 October 2011). “Dissident Syrian colonel flees to Turkey”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/04/us-syria-opposition-idUSL5E7L41CT20111004. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  173. ^ “Scores dead as army and deserters clash; U.N. says 2,900 killed in Syria crackdown”. Al Arabiya. 6 October 2011. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/10/06/170514.html. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  174. ^ “Activist group: Fourteen killed in Syrian violence”. The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. 13 October 2011. http://www.jpost.com/Headlines/Article.aspx?id=241610. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  175. ^ “Activists: Syrian forces fight defectors; 5 killed”. The Hindu. Associated Press (Chennai, India). 17 October 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/article2546086.ece. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  176. ^ “Assad forces fight deserters at northwestern town”. Reuters. 25 October 2011. http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/10/25/idINIndia-60114220111025.
  177. ^ “11 troops killed as UN chief urges end to Syria violence”. Jakarta Globe. 18 October 2011. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/afp/11-troops-killed-as-un-chief-urges-end-to-syria-violence/472317. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  178. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (12 November 2011). “Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria Over Crackdown”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/13/world/middleeast/arab-league-votes-to-suspend-syria-over-its-crackdown-on-protesters.html. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  179. ^ “Syrian Soldiers Killed in Clash With Defectors”. Fox News. 15 November 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/11/15/syrian-soldiers-killed-in-clash-with-defectors/. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  180. ^ Bakri, Nada (20 November). “New Phase for Syria in Attacks on Capital”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/21/world/middleeast/insurgents-attack-baath-party-offices-in-damascus.html. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  181. ^ Bakri, Nada (15 December 2011). “Syrian Army Defectors Reportedly Kill 27 Soldiers”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/16/world/middleeast/syria-army-defectors-said-to-kill-soldiers-in-coordinated-assault.html. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  182. ^ “Syria unrest: Dozens of army deserters ‘gunned down'”. BBC. 20 December 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-16258387. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  183. ^ Malas, Nour (26 October 2012). “Syria Truce Dawns With Protests, Ends in Clashes”. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203922804578080183133298020.html. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  184. ^ “Syria’s Zabadani is ‘liberated,’ but for how long?”. The Washington Post. 21 January 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/syrias-zabadani-liberated-but-for-how-long/2012/01/21/gIQAMhDYGQ_story.html. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  185. ^ Yacoub, Khaled (30 January 2012). “Assad troops fight back against Syria rebels”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/30/us-syria-idUSTRE80S08620120130. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  186. ^ Todd, Tony (10 February 2012). “Free Syrian Army blames Assad for Aleppo bombing”. France 24. http://www.france24.com/en/20120210-free-syrian-army-denies-deadly-bombing-aleppo-assad-un. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  187. ^ “More than 11,100 killed in Syria in 13 months: NGO”. Agence France-Presse. Channel NewsAsia. 16 April 2012. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_world/view/1195589/1/.html. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  188. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE24/041/2012/en/30416985-883b-4e67-b386-0df14a79f694/mde240412012en.pdf. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  189. ^ “Syria: Repression continues despite Annan plan hopes”. Amnesty International. 3 April 2012. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/syria-repression-continues-despite-annan-plan-hopes-2012-04-03. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  190. ^ “Iran reaffirms full support for Annan’s Syria peace plan”. Al Arabiya. 10 July 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/10/225485.html. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  191. ^ Holliday, Joseph. “Syria’s Maturing Insurgency”. Middle East Security Report. Institute for the Study of War. http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/Syrias_MaturingInsurgency_21June2012.pdf. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  192. ^ Ghaith Abdul-Ahad (24 July 2012). “Inside Syria: rebels and regime trapped in cycle of destruction”. The Guardian. Deir el-Zour. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/24/inside-syria-rebels-regime-destruction. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  193. ^ http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/04/218430.html. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  194. ^ “Assad names new Syrian PM, army battles rebels”. Reuters. Trust. 6 June 2012. http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/assad-names-new-syrian-pm-army-battles-rebels/. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  195. ^ “New ‘massacre’ reported in Syria’s Hama province”. BBC News. 7 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18348201.
  196. ^ “Syria UN team ‘shot at’ near Qubair ‘massacre site'”. BBC News. 7 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18352281.
  197. ^ “Syrian army blocks U.N. monitors entering Hama ‘massacre’ site: activists, U.N. official”. Al Arabiya. 7 June 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/07/219098.html. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  198. ^ Ivan Watson (12 June 2012) “Syria: Battle for the cities”. CNN.
  199. ^ “Turkey confirms Syria shot down F-4 military jet, search for pilots ongoing”. Al Arabiya. 22 June 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/22/222135.html. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  200. ^ “Bodies of Turkish jet crew shot down by Syria found”. BBC News. 4 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18707069. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  201. ^ Sabbagh, H. (23 June 2012). “Military Spokesman: Anti-Air Defenses Intercepted a Target That Violated Syrian Airspace Over Territorial Waters, Shot It Down West of Lattakia”. Syrian Arab News Agency. http://sana.sy/eng/21/2012/06/23/427102.htm. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  202. ^ “Turkey goes to Nato over plane it says Syria downed in international airspace”. The Guardian (London). 24 June 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/24/turkey-plane-shot-down-syria. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  203. ^ http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/international/26-Jun-2012/turkey-dubs-syria-a-clear-threat-vows-to-retaliate. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  204. ^ Borger, Julian; Chulov, Martin; Elder, Miriam (26 June 2012). “Syria shot at second Turkish jet, Ankara claims”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/25/syria-shooting-second-turkish-plane-claim. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  205. ^ “Syria-Turkey tension: Assad ‘regrets’ F-4 jet’s downing”. BBC News. 3 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18685250. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  206. ^ Hurriyet Daily News, 11–12 August 2012, page 5, “No Misinformation on Downed Jet: Army”.
  207. ^ Khalaf, Roula; Fielding-Smith, Abigail (1 July 2012). “Syria talks fail to satisfy opposition”. Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e8de30f0-c38e-11e1-ad80-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  208. ^ Aji, Albert; Fraser, Suzan (1 July 2012). “Syrian opposition rejects new international plan”. Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/07/01/syrian-opposition-rejects-un-transition-plan/. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  209. ^ “Syria in civil war, Red Cross says”. BBC. 15 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18849362. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  210. ^ Ruth Sherlock; Adrian Blomfield (17 July 2012). “Syrian rebels launch campaign to ‘liberate’ Damascus”. The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9407153/Syrian-rebels-launch-campaign-to-liberate-Damascus.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  211. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9408321/Assads-brother-in-law-and-top-Syrian-officials-killed-in-Damascus-suicide-bomb.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  212. ^ Gianluca Mezzofiore (18 July 2012). “Syria Civil War: Assad Brother-in-Law Assef Shawkat Killed in Damascus Suicide Bombing”. International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/364294/20120718/assef-shawkat-assad-brother-law-daoud-rajiha.htm. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  213. ^ “Syria blast: Security chief Ikhtiar dies from wounds”. BBC News. 20 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18920733. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  214. ^ Solomon, Erika (18 July 2012). “Two Syrian rebel groups claim Damascus attack”. Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/18/uk-syria-crisis-bombing-claim-idUKBRE86H0FO20120718. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  215. ^ “Syrian interior minister injured but “stable,” state TV reports”. NOW Lebanon. 18 July 2012. http://nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=420222. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  216. ^ “Moscow condemns Damascus blast”. The Voice of Russia. 18 July 2012. http://english.ruvr.ru/2012_07_18/Moscow-condemns-Damascus-blast/. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  217. ^ “Assad Reappears Preview”. BBC News. 20 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18918473. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  218. ^ Luke Harding (27 July 2012). “Syrian army supply crisis has regime on brink of collapse, say defectors”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/27/syrian-army-brink-of-collapse. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  219. ^ Gladstone, Rick (19 July 2012). “Russia and China Veto Resolution on Syria”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/world/middleeast/russia-and-china-veto-un-sanctions-against-syria.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  220. ^ “Fighting Embroils in Syria Preview”. CNN. 20 July 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/20/world/meast/syria-unrest/index.html. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  221. ^ Arango, Tim (19 July 2012). “Iraq Says Rebels in Syria Control Border Posts”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/world/middleeast/syria-border-with-iraq.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  222. ^ Aneja, Atul (28 July 2012). “A decisive battle being waged over Aleppo”. The Hindu (Chennai, India). http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/article3693349.ece.
  223. ^ “Syria crisis: Assad strikes back with jets in Aleppo and Damascus – live updates”. The Guardian. 25 July 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2012/jul/25/syria-assad-strikes-back-aleppo-live. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  224. ^ “Syria using fighter jets against rebels: UN”. The Hindu. Associated Press (Chennai, India). 1 August 2012. http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/article3711815.ece.
  225. ^ “Syrian rebels seize control of border crossing on frontier with Turkey”. CBS News. 19 September 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57515876/syrian-rebels-seize-control-of-border-crossing-on-frontier-with-turkey/. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  226. ^ “Rebel Group Says It Is Now Based in Syria, a Major Step”. The New York Times. 23 September 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/23/world/middleeast/rebels-move-command-from-turkey-to-syria.html. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  227. ^ “Turkey hits targets inside Syria after border deaths”. 3 October 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19822253. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  228. ^ “Turkey strikes back at Syria after mortar kills five”. 3 October 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/03/us-syria-crisis-idUSBRE88J0X720121003. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  229. ^ “Syrian rebels claim control of strategic town”. Al Jazeera. 10 October 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/10/2012109224646736885.html. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  230. ^ Di Giovanni, JANINE (18 October 2012). “Denial Is Slipping Away as War Arrives in Damascus”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/18/world/middleeast/syrian-war-reaches-damascus.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&smid=tw-share&&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  231. ^ “Eid ceasefire ‘takes effect’ in Syria”, Al Jazeera, 25 October 2012, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/10/201210251580449332.html
  232. ^ Evans, Dominic (26 October 2012). “Fighting ruptures ragged Syrian ceasefire”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/26/us-syria-crisis-idUSBRE88J0X720121026. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  233. ^ Gladstone, Rick (31 October 2012). “Syrian Air Force Commander Is Reported Killed”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/31/world/middleeast/syrian-air-force-commander-is-reported-killed.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  234. ^ “Syria army quits base on strategic Aleppo road”. Reuters. 2 November 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/02/us-syria-crisis-idUSBRE88J0X720121102. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  235. ^ “Syrian rebels struggle to keep regime Air Force on the ground (+video)”. Christian Science Monitor. 26 November 2012. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2012/1126/Syrian-rebels-struggle-to-keep-regime-Air-Force-on-the-ground-video. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  236. ^ “Rebels target air base in battle against aerial bombardment in Syria”. CNN. 4 November 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/03/world/meast/syria-civil-war/?hpt=hp_t1. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  237. ^ “British PM broaches ‘safe passage’ for al-Assad”. CNN. 6 November 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/11/06/world/meast/syria-civil-war/. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  238. ^ http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/11/21/251049.html
  239. ^ Yeranian, Edward (22 November 2012). “Analysts Weigh In on Longevity of Syria’s Assad”. Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/content/analysts_weight_in_on_longevity_of_syrias_assad/1551388.html. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  240. ^ “Global hacking network declares Internet war on Syria”. Reuters. 30 November 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/30/us-syria-crisis-internet-idUSBRE8AT0PN20121130. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  241. ^ http://www.understandingwar.org/article/criminalization-syrian-conflict. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  242. ^ Holmes, Oliver (15 August 2011). “Assad’s Devious, Cruel Plan to Stay in Power By Dividing Syria—And Why It’s Working”. TNR. http://www.tnr.com/article/world/93286/syria-assad-shabbiha-sectarianism.
  243. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/04/us-syria-assad-alawites-idUSTRE7433X620110504.
  244. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (3 February 2012). “Uprising finally hits Syria’s “Silk Road” city”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/03/us-syria-aleppo-idUSTRE81213720120203. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  245. ^ “Bashar Al-Assad’s transformation”. Saudi Gazette. 15 May 2012. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentID=20120515124158. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  246. ^ http://harpers.org/archive/2011/06/hbc-90008111. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  247. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (15 September 2011). “Armored Syrian forces storm towns near Turkey border”. Reuters. Amman. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/15/us-syria-idUSTRE78D3HV20110915. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  248. ^ Torvov, Daniel (2 December 2011). “Free Syrian Army Partners with Opposition: What’s Next for Syria?”. International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.co.in/articles/259730/20111202/syria-assad-free-syrian-army-sanctions.htm. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  249. ^ “Ranks of Free Syrian Army ‘gaining strength'”. Al Jazeera. 2 December 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/12/20111226171260898.html. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  250. ^ Rosen, Nir (21 February 2012). “Q&A: Nir Rosen on Syria’s armed opposition”. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/02/201221315020166516.html. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  251. ^ Michael Weiss: Hezbollah’s secret war on Syrian rebels NOW Lebanon, 2 February 2012
  252. ^ “Syrian Opposition Call for No-Fly Zone”. Turkish Weekly. 8 October 2011. http://www.turkishweekly.net/news/124717/syrian-opposition-calls-for-no-fly-zone.html. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  253. ^ Shadid, Anthony (6 May 2011). “Protests Across Syria Despite Military Presence”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/07/world/middleeast/07syria.html.
  254. ^ Alami, Mona (14 May 2011). “As Arab Spring continues, black markets boom”. Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2011/05/201151410154606644.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  255. ^ Sands, Phil (17 May 2011). “Tribal justice blamed for deaths of 120 Syrian police and soldiers”. The National. http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/tribal-justice-blamed-for-deaths-of-120-syrian-police-and-soldiers. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  256. ^ Karouny, Mariam (6 June 2011). “Syria to send in army after 120 troops killed”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/06/us-syria-ambush-idUSTRE7553AI20110606. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  257. ^ Blanford, Nicholas (9 June 2011). “Has Syria’s peaceful uprising turned into an insurrection?”. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0609/Has-Syria-s-peaceful-uprising-turned-into-an-insurrection/(page)/2.
  258. ^ Byman, Daniel (10 February 2012). “Can we help Syria without making things worse?”. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/can-we-help-syria-without-making-things-worse/2012/02/08/gIQAD6HJ4Q_story.html. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  259. ^ Byman, Daniel (2 February 2012). “Finish Him: Why the World Needs to Take Out Bashar al-Assad Now”. Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/02/02/finish_him_assad_syria. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  260. ^ O’Bagy, Elizabeth (29 June 2012). “Disorganized Like a Fox”. Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/06/29/disorganized_like_a_fox. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  261. ^ Solomon, Erika (27 April 2012). “Rebel rivalry and suspicions threaten Syria revolt”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/27/us-syria-rebels-idUSBRE83Q0S120120427. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  262. ^ Blair, Edmund; Saleh, Yasmine (4 July 2012). “Syrian opposition rifts give world excuse not to act”. Reuters. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/04/224514.html. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  263. ^ Jim Muir (12 November 2012). “Syria crisis: Gulf states recognise Syria opposition”. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20295857. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  264. ^ “Mideast church leaders worried about Christians if Syria has civil war”. Catholic News. http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/1103997.htm. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  265. ^ May, Cliff (21 July 2011). “The Great Alawite Hope”. Townhall. http://townhall.com/columnists/cliffmay/2011/07/21/the_great_alawite_hope. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  266. ^ May, Cliff (25 October 2011). “Syrian Refugees: Itching for a Fight with Assad and His Regime”. Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097761,00.html. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  267. ^ http://globalspin.blogs.time.com/2012/03/01/eyewitness-from-homs-an-alawite-refugee-warns-of-sectarian-war-in-syria/. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  268. ^ “Syria Conflict: Breakaway Alawite State May Be President Bashar Assad’s Last Resort”. Huffington Post. 25 July 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/25/syria-conflict-breakaway-alawite-state_n_1703624.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  269. ^ “Idea of an Assad Alawite state”. Al Arabiya. 29 July 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/views/2012/07/29/229006.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  270. ^ Loveday Morris (8 August 2012). “Formation of a breakaway Alawite state may be Assad’s ‘Plan B’ if he loses control of Syrian capital Damascus”. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/formation-of-a-breakaway-alawite-state-may-be-assads-plan-b-if-he-loses-control-of-syrian-capital-damascus-8022469.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  271. ^ “Inside Syria: Aleppo’s Christians arm against Islamists”. Global Post. 31 July 2012. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/syria/120731/aleppo-christians-islamists-jihadis-al-qaeda-iraq-sectarian-conflict. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  272. ^ “Syria’s Crumbling Pluralism”. The New York Times. 3 August 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/04/opinion/syrias-crumbling-pluralism.html. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  273. ^ “Mafia-style shoot-out exposes threat to Syria’s Assad”. France24. 7 October 2012. http://www.france24.com/en/20121003-shoot-out-syria-corleone-exposes-new-threat-bashar-mohammed-al-assad-alawite. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  274. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/world/middleeast/influx-of-iraqi-shiites-to-syria-widens-wars-scope.html. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  275. ^ http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/countries/SY/Syria_Report_2011-08-17.pdf. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  276. ^ http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/05/14/syrian-kurds-fleeing-iraqi-safe-haven. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  277. ^ Weiss, Michael (16 November 2011). “New Republic: Will Kurds Determine Syria’s Fate?”. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2011/11/16/142387417/new-republic-will-kurds-determine-syrias-fate. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  278. ^ Erlich, Reese (27 October 2011). “In Syria, Kurds Split Over Support for Assad Regime”. Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/syria-kurdish-groups-armed-forces-assad-controversy. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  279. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (5 October 2011). “Who backs Syria’s Assad? Top 4 sources of support”. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/1005/Who-backs-Syria-s-Assad-Top-4-sources-of-support/Christian-and-Kurdish-minorities. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  280. ^ Blair, Edmund; Saleh, Yasmine (4 July 2012). “Syria opposition rifts give world excuse not to act”. Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/04/uk-syria-crisis-rifts-idUKBRE8630IY20120704. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  281. ^ “Syria security forces ‘open fire at Kurd’s funeral'”. BBC News. 8 October 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15227172. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  282. ^ “Syrian police open fire on Kurdish rally”. The News. 13 March 2012. http://www.thenews.com.pk/article-39557-Syrian-police-open-fire-on-Kurdish-rally. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  283. ^ “Al Jazeera speaks with PKK rebel leader”. Al Jazeera. 13 October 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/video/middleeast/2012/10/2012101355149836141.html.
  284. ^ Kurdish National Council of Syria KNCS invited to US to discuss the Kurdish issue ekurd.net, 12 May 2012
  285. ^ Bastian, Marc (15 June 2012). “Syrians take up arms and dig graves”. Your Middle East. Agence France-Presse. http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/news/syrians-take-up-arms-and-dig-graves_8113. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  286. ^ “PYD Leader Salih Muslim: Syrian Government Has Lost Control in Kurdish Areas”. Rudaw. http://www.rudaw.net/english/news/syria/4938.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  287. ^ “Political Groups to Run Liberated Kurdish Cities in Syria Through Joint Committee”. Rudaw. 20 July 2012. http://www.rudaw.net/english/news/syria/4977.html. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  288. ^ “Kurds seize power in Kobani in Syria”. Firat News. 19 July 2012. http://en.firatnews.com/index.php?rupel=article&nuceID=4948. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  289. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/world/middleeast/syria-criticizes-frances-support-of-rebels.html. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  290. ^ Nordland, Rod; Mawad, Dalal (30 June 2012). “Palestinians in Syria Are Reluctantly Drawn Into Vortex of Uprising”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/01/world/middleeast/palestinians-in-syria-drawn-into-the-violence.html. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  291. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Oct-31/193365-syria-rebels-bring-fight-to-pro-assad-palestinians.ashx#axzz2Ay3P8JUC. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  292. ^ “Saudi Arabia withdraws ambassador from Syria”. BBC. 7 August 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14439303. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  293. ^ “EU condemns ‘unacceptable’ repression in Syria”. Middle East Online. 22 March 2011. http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=45066. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  294. ^ “UN chief slams Syria’s crackdown on protests”. Al Jazeera. 18 March 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/2011318231622114396.html.
  295. ^ “Canada condemns violence in Yemen, Bahrain, Syria”. Agence France-Presse. Google News. 21 March 2011. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jj7uSbIAaro1v0fwW4jziIxQ1j9w?docId=CNG.a807bd69f3debaa7a6b4ca2383f9500b.1191. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  296. ^ Gordts, Eline (5 October 2011). “Russia, China Veto Syria Sanctions”. Independent. Associated Press. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/russia-and-china-veto-syria-sanctions-threat-2365794.html. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  297. ^ “Russia urges Syrian opposition to end violence”. RIA Novosti. 3 October 2011. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20111003/167347814.html. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  298. ^ “Mortar from Syria kills 5 family members in Turkey”. Ynetnews. 3 October 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4288211,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  299. ^ “Turkey strikes targets inside Syria after mortar attack”. Ynetnews. 4 October 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4288276,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  300. ^ “Report: Turkish retaliatory fire has killed 12 Syrian soldiers”. Ynetnews. 20 October 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4294544,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  301. ^ “Mortar shells land in northern Golan Heights”. Ynetnews. 25 September 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4285819,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  302. ^ “3 Syrian tanks enter demilitarized zone in Golan Heights”. Ynetnews. 3 November 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4300606,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  303. ^ “IDF jeep hit by Syrian gunfire; none injured”. Ynetnews. 5 November 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4301538,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  304. ^ “Israeli army fires ‘warning shots’ at Syria”. Al Jazeera. 11 November 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/11/20121111121454453745.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  305. ^ “IDF retaliates against Syrian mortar fire”. Ynetnews. 12 November 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4304381,00.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  306. ^ “Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for Syrian rebels”. Reuters. 1 August 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/01/us-usa-syria-obama-order-idUSBRE8701OK20120801. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  307. ^ “Syria conflict: UK to give extra £5m to opposition groups”. BBC. 10 August 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19205204. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  308. ^ “France gives non-lethal military aid to Syrian opposition: PM”. Al Arabiya. 22 August 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/08/22/233570.html. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  309. ^ “Syria Rebels ‘Aided By British Intelligence'”. Sky News. 19 August 2012. http://news.sky.com/story/974300/syria-rebels-aided-by-british-intelligence. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  310. ^ “U.S. Bolsters Ties to Fighters in Syria”. The Wall Street Journal. 13 June 2012. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303410404577464763551149048.html. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  311. ^ “Syria crisis: US concerned weapons reaching jihadist”. The Guardian. 16 October 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2012/oct/16/syria-crisis-us-weapons-jihadis-live. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  312. ^ “French direct aid a dubious break for Syria rebels”. The Guardian. 7 September 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/10427926. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  313. ^ “Russia denies arming Syria”. The Irish Times. 1 June 2012. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2012/0601/breaking35.html. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  314. ^ “Turkish Premier Says Russian Munitions Were Found on Syrian Jet”. The New York Times. 11 October 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/12/world/middleeast/syria.html. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  315. ^ “Russia Says Syria Jet Held Radar Gear”. The Wall Street Journal. 12 October 2012. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390444657804578052251394803808.html. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  316. ^ “Syrian rebels have US-made Stinger missiles: Russia”. Dawn. 24 October 2012. http://dawn.com/2012/10/24/syrian-rebels-have-us-made-stinger-missiles-russia/&ei=HueHUP7vIM7a0QXfxoCABA&usg=AFQjCNHvyf-rTBl3YU6Oweb290CgLfeQkQ&sig2=jeK9L7umCU4T5BMAbKqJPQ.
  317. ^ “Syrian army being aided by Iranian forces”. The Guardian. 28 May 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/28/syria-army-iran-forces. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  318. ^ Nick Paton Walsh (31 October 2012). “Iranian drones guiding Syrian attacks, rebels say”. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/31/world/meast/syria-drones/index.html.
  319. ^ “Iran’s Hizbullah sends more troops to help Assad storm Aleppo, fight Sunnis”. World Tribune. 29 July 2012. http://worldtribune.us/2012/07/29/irans-hizbullah-sends-more-troops-to-help-assad-storm-aleppo-fight-sunnis/. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  320. ^ “Iran Supplying Syrian Military via Iraqi Airspace”. The New York Times. 4 September 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/05/world/middleeast/iran-supplying-syrian-military-via-iraq-airspace.html. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  321. ^ Kitfield, James (16 February 2012). “The Global Dangers of Syria’s Looming Civil War”. The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/02/the-global-dangers-of-syrias-looming-civil-war/252988/. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  322. ^ Cooke, Shamus. “Proxy War in Syria Threatens Catastrophe for the Middle East”. Global Research. http://globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=28957. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  323. ^ “Syria crisis: Number of refugees rises to 200,000”. BBC News. 24 August 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19370506. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  324. ^ “Over 14,400 killed in 15-month Syria revolt, says NGO”. Al Arabiya. 14 June 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/14/220614.html. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  325. ^ Enders, David (6 November 2012). “Deaths in Syria down from peak; army casualties outpacing rebels’”. McClatchy. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/11/06/173808/deaths-in-syria-down-from-peak.html. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  326. ^ “UNICEF says 400 children killed in Syria unrest”. Agence France-Presse. Geneva: Google News. 7 February 2012. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jn_Hwm1c4s57hZroY2XO3gtvHl_g?docId=CNG.d4e0242216423f0ddcaa53de60d07900.f1. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  327. ^ “UNICEF: 500 children died in Syrian war”. UPI. 23 March 2012. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2012/03/23/UNICEF-500-children-died-in-Syrian-war/UPI-69191332522535/. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  328. ^ “Al-Jafari: Syria has Right to Protect its Citizen, Combat Terrorism and Armed Violence”. Syrian Arab News Agency. 14 February 2012. http://sana.sy/eng/22/2012/02/14/400319.htm. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  329. ^ Fahim, Kareem (5 January 2012). “Hundreds Tortured in Syria, Human Rights Group Says”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/06/world/middleeast/hundreds-tortured-in-syria-human-rights-group-says.html.
  330. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/160978#.UH2WesU3tCg. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  331. ^ Preliminary report of the High Commissioner on the situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic. UN Human Rights Council. 14 June 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/17session/A.HRC.17.CRP.1_Englishonly.pdf. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  332. ^ http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/SpecialSession/CISyria/PeriodicUpdateCISyria.pdf. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  333. ^ http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SY/A.HRC.S-17.2.Add.1_en.pdf. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  334. ^ “We’ve Never Seen Such Horror”: Crimes against Humanity by Syrian Security Forces. Human Rights Watch. June 2011. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria0611webwcover.pdf. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  335. ^ http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria0712webwcover.pdf. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  336. ^ Syria: Despite Denials, More Cluster Bomb Attacks| hrw.org| 23 October 2012
  337. ^ Convention on Cluster Munitions
  338. ^ Cluster Munitions hrw.org
  339. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha (7 June 2011). “U.S. raps Syria over claim of photographing D.C. demonstrations”. Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/u-s-raps-syria-over-claim-of-photographing-d-c-demonstrations-1.372268. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  340. ^ Cave, Damein (9 August 2012). “Crime Wave Engulfs Syria as Its Cities Reel From War”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/10/world/middleeast/crime-wave-engulfs-syria-as-its-cities-reel-from-war.html. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  341. ^ Sima Barmania (19 June 2012). “Women under siege: The use of rape as a weapon of war in Syria”. The Independent. http://blogs.independent.co.uk/2012/06/19/women-under-siege-the-use-of-rape-as-a-weapon-of-war-in-syria/. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  342. ^ “The ultimate assault: Charting Syria’s use of rape to terrorize its people”. Women Under Siege. 11 July 2012. http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-ultimate-assault-charting-syrias-use-of-rape-to-terrorize-its-people. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  343. ^ Damage to the Soul: Syria’s cultural heritage in conflict Cunliffe, Emma., Durham University and the Global Heritage Fund, 1 May 2012
  344. ^ Syria’s ancient treasures pulverised Fisk, Robert., Independent, 5 August 2012.
  345. ^ “Syrian War Plays Out Along a Street in Lebanon”. The New York Times. 24 August 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/24/world/middleeast/syrian-war-plays-out-along-a-street-in-lebanon.html.
  346. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/09/18/syrian-jets-hit-lebanese-territory-near-border/#ixzz27JvfB9lg.
  347. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/2012/Sep-23/188927-lebanese-president-praises-army-response-to-fsa-attack.ashx#ixzz27JxWSuyo.
  348. ^ “Syrian rebels attack Lebanese army post”. Al Akhbar. 22 September 2012. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/12511. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  349. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Local-News/2012/Oct-11/191029-syrian-shells-hit-lebanon-border-town.ashx#axzz28x8cZ38U.
  350. ^ “Beirut Bombing: Casualties Reported As Car Bomb Rocks Lebanese Capital”. Huffington Post. 19 October 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/19/beirut-explosion-lebanon-2012_n_1985854.html. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  351. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Local-News/2012/Sep-19/188481-refugee-children-overwhelm-bekaa-schools.ashx#axzz27Jwe5enz.

Further reading

External links



Source: Wikipedia

Leave a Reply